base-4.14.0.0: Basic libraries
Copyright(c) The University of Glasgow 2001
LicenseBSD-style (see the file libraries/base/LICENSE)
Maintainerlibraries@haskell.org
Stabilityprovisional
Portabilityportable
Safe HaskellTrustworthy
LanguageHaskell2010

Data.Functor

Description

A type f is a Functor if it provides a function fmap which, given any types a and b, lets you apply any function of type (a -> b) to turn an f a into an f b, preserving the structure of f.

Examples

Expand
>>> fmap show (Just 1)  --  (a   -> b)      -> f a       -> f b
Just "1"                --  (Int -> String) -> Maybe Int -> Maybe String
>>> fmap show Nothing   --  (a   -> b)      -> f a       -> f b
Nothing                 --  (Int -> String) -> Maybe Int -> Maybe String
>>> fmap show [1,2,3]   --  (a   -> b)      -> f a       -> f b
["1", "2", "3"]         --  (Int -> String) -> [Int]     -> [String]
>>> fmap show []        --  (a   -> b)      -> f a       -> f b
[]                      --  (Int -> String) -> [Int]     -> [String]

The fmap function is also available as the infix operator <$>:

>>> fmap show (Just 1) --  (Int -> String) -> Maybe Int -> Maybe String
Just "1"
>>> show <$> (Just 1)  --  (Int -> String) -> Maybe Int -> Maybe String
Just "1"
Synopsis

Documentation

class Functor f where Source #

A type f is a Functor if it provides a function fmap which, given any types a and b lets you apply any function from (a -> b) to turn an f a into an f b, preserving the structure of f. Furthermore f needs to adhere to the following:

Identity
fmap id == id
Composition
fmap (f . g) == fmap f . fmap g

Note, that the second law follows from the free theorem of the type fmap and the first law, so you need only check that the former condition holds.

Minimal complete definition

fmap

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> f a -> f b Source #

Using ApplicativeDo: 'fmap f as' can be understood as the do expression

do a <- as
   pure (f a)

with an inferred Functor constraint.

(<$) :: a -> f b -> f a infixl 4 Source #

Replace all locations in the input with the same value. The default definition is fmap . const, but this may be overridden with a more efficient version.

Using ApplicativeDo: 'a <$ bs' can be understood as the do expression

do bs
   pure a

with an inferred Functor constraint.

Instances

Instances details
Functor [] #

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> [a] -> [b] Source #

(<$) :: a -> [b] -> [a] Source #

Functor Maybe #

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> Maybe a -> Maybe b Source #

(<$) :: a -> Maybe b -> Maybe a Source #

Functor IO #

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> IO a -> IO b Source #

(<$) :: a -> IO b -> IO a Source #

Functor Par1 #

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Generics

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> Par1 a -> Par1 b Source #

(<$) :: a -> Par1 b -> Par1 a Source #

Functor NonEmpty #

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> NonEmpty a -> NonEmpty b Source #

(<$) :: a -> NonEmpty b -> NonEmpty a Source #

Functor NoIO #

Since: base-4.8.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.GHCi

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> NoIO a -> NoIO b Source #

(<$) :: a -> NoIO b -> NoIO a Source #

Functor ReadP #

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in Text.ParserCombinators.ReadP

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> ReadP a -> ReadP b Source #

(<$) :: a -> ReadP b -> ReadP a Source #

Functor ReadPrec #

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in Text.ParserCombinators.ReadPrec

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> ReadPrec a -> ReadPrec b Source #

(<$) :: a -> ReadPrec b -> ReadPrec a Source #

Functor Down #

Since: base-4.11.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Ord

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> Down a -> Down b Source #

(<$) :: a -> Down b -> Down a Source #

Functor Product #

Since: base-4.8.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Semigroup.Internal

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> Product a -> Product b Source #

(<$) :: a -> Product b -> Product a Source #

Functor Sum #

Since: base-4.8.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Semigroup.Internal

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> Sum a -> Sum b Source #

(<$) :: a -> Sum b -> Sum a Source #

Functor Dual #

Since: base-4.8.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Semigroup.Internal

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> Dual a -> Dual b Source #

(<$) :: a -> Dual b -> Dual a Source #

Functor Last #

Since: base-4.8.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Monoid

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> Last a -> Last b Source #

(<$) :: a -> Last b -> Last a Source #

Functor First #

Since: base-4.8.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Monoid

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> First a -> First b Source #

(<$) :: a -> First b -> First a Source #

Functor STM #

Since: base-4.3.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Conc.Sync

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> STM a -> STM b Source #

(<$) :: a -> STM b -> STM a Source #

Functor Handler #

Since: base-4.6.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Control.Exception

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> Handler a -> Handler b Source #

(<$) :: a -> Handler b -> Handler a Source #

Functor Identity #

Since: base-4.8.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Functor.Identity

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> Identity a -> Identity b Source #

(<$) :: a -> Identity b -> Identity a Source #

Functor ZipList #

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in Control.Applicative

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> ZipList a -> ZipList b Source #

(<$) :: a -> ZipList b -> ZipList a Source #

Functor ArgDescr #

Since: base-4.6.0.0

Instance details

Defined in System.Console.GetOpt

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> ArgDescr a -> ArgDescr b Source #

(<$) :: a -> ArgDescr b -> ArgDescr a Source #

Functor OptDescr #

Since: base-4.6.0.0

Instance details

Defined in System.Console.GetOpt

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> OptDescr a -> OptDescr b Source #

(<$) :: a -> OptDescr b -> OptDescr a Source #

Functor ArgOrder #

Since: base-4.6.0.0

Instance details

Defined in System.Console.GetOpt

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> ArgOrder a -> ArgOrder b Source #

(<$) :: a -> ArgOrder b -> ArgOrder a Source #

Functor Option #

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Semigroup

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> Option a -> Option b Source #

(<$) :: a -> Option b -> Option a Source #

Functor Last #

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Semigroup

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> Last a -> Last b Source #

(<$) :: a -> Last b -> Last a Source #

Functor First #

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Semigroup

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> First a -> First b Source #

(<$) :: a -> First b -> First a Source #

Functor Max #

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Semigroup

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> Max a -> Max b Source #

(<$) :: a -> Max b -> Max a Source #

Functor Min #

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Semigroup

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> Min a -> Min b Source #

(<$) :: a -> Min b -> Min a Source #

Functor Complex #

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Complex

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> Complex a -> Complex b Source #

(<$) :: a -> Complex b -> Complex a Source #

Functor (Either a) #

Since: base-3.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Either

Methods

fmap :: (a0 -> b) -> Either a a0 -> Either a b Source #

(<$) :: a0 -> Either a b -> Either a a0 Source #

Functor (V1 :: Type -> Type) #

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Generics

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> V1 a -> V1 b Source #

(<$) :: a -> V1 b -> V1 a Source #

Functor (U1 :: Type -> Type) #

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Generics

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> U1 a -> U1 b Source #

(<$) :: a -> U1 b -> U1 a Source #

Functor ((,) a) #

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

fmap :: (a0 -> b) -> (a, a0) -> (a, b) Source #

(<$) :: a0 -> (a, b) -> (a, a0) Source #

Functor (ST s) #

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.ST

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> ST s a -> ST s b Source #

(<$) :: a -> ST s b -> ST s a Source #

Functor (Array i) #

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Arr

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> Array i a -> Array i b Source #

(<$) :: a -> Array i b -> Array i a Source #

Functor (Proxy :: Type -> Type) #

Since: base-4.7.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Proxy

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> Proxy a -> Proxy b Source #

(<$) :: a -> Proxy b -> Proxy a Source #

Arrow a => Functor (ArrowMonad a) #

Since: base-4.6.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Control.Arrow

Methods

fmap :: (a0 -> b) -> ArrowMonad a a0 -> ArrowMonad a b Source #

(<$) :: a0 -> ArrowMonad a b -> ArrowMonad a a0 Source #

Monad m => Functor (WrappedMonad m) #

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in Control.Applicative

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> WrappedMonad m a -> WrappedMonad m b Source #

(<$) :: a -> WrappedMonad m b -> WrappedMonad m a Source #

Functor (ST s) #

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in Control.Monad.ST.Lazy.Imp

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> ST s a -> ST s b Source #

(<$) :: a -> ST s b -> ST s a Source #

Functor (Arg a) #

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Semigroup

Methods

fmap :: (a0 -> b) -> Arg a a0 -> Arg a b Source #

(<$) :: a0 -> Arg a b -> Arg a a0 Source #

Functor f => Functor (Rec1 f) #

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Generics

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> Rec1 f a -> Rec1 f b Source #

(<$) :: a -> Rec1 f b -> Rec1 f a Source #

Functor (URec Char :: Type -> Type) #

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Generics

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> URec Char a -> URec Char b Source #

(<$) :: a -> URec Char b -> URec Char a Source #

Functor (URec Double :: Type -> Type) #

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Generics

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> URec Double a -> URec Double b Source #

(<$) :: a -> URec Double b -> URec Double a Source #

Functor (URec Float :: Type -> Type) #

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Generics

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> URec Float a -> URec Float b Source #

(<$) :: a -> URec Float b -> URec Float a Source #

Functor (URec Int :: Type -> Type) #

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Generics

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> URec Int a -> URec Int b Source #

(<$) :: a -> URec Int b -> URec Int a Source #

Functor (URec Word :: Type -> Type) #

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Generics

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> URec Word a -> URec Word b Source #

(<$) :: a -> URec Word b -> URec Word a Source #

Functor (URec (Ptr ()) :: Type -> Type) #

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Generics

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> URec (Ptr ()) a -> URec (Ptr ()) b Source #

(<$) :: a -> URec (Ptr ()) b -> URec (Ptr ()) a Source #

Functor ((,,) a b) #

Since: base-4.14.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

fmap :: (a0 -> b0) -> (a, b, a0) -> (a, b, b0) Source #

(<$) :: a0 -> (a, b, b0) -> (a, b, a0) Source #

Functor f => Functor (Alt f) #

Since: base-4.8.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Semigroup.Internal

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> Alt f a -> Alt f b Source #

(<$) :: a -> Alt f b -> Alt f a Source #

Functor f => Functor (Ap f) #

Since: base-4.12.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Monoid

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> Ap f a -> Ap f b Source #

(<$) :: a -> Ap f b -> Ap f a Source #

Functor (Const m :: Type -> Type) #

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in Data.Functor.Const

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> Const m a -> Const m b Source #

(<$) :: a -> Const m b -> Const m a Source #

Functor m => Functor (Kleisli m a) #

Since: base-4.14.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Control.Arrow

Methods

fmap :: (a0 -> b) -> Kleisli m a a0 -> Kleisli m a b Source #

(<$) :: a0 -> Kleisli m a b -> Kleisli m a a0 Source #

Arrow a => Functor (WrappedArrow a b) #

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in Control.Applicative

Methods

fmap :: (a0 -> b0) -> WrappedArrow a b a0 -> WrappedArrow a b b0 Source #

(<$) :: a0 -> WrappedArrow a b b0 -> WrappedArrow a b a0 Source #

Functor ((->) r :: Type -> Type) #

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> (r -> a) -> r -> b Source #

(<$) :: a -> (r -> b) -> r -> a Source #

Functor (K1 i a :: Type -> Type) #

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Generics

Methods

fmap :: (a0 -> b) -> K1 i a a0 -> K1 i a b Source #

(<$) :: a0 -> K1 i a b -> K1 i a a0 Source #

(Functor f, Functor g) => Functor (f :+: g) #

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Generics

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> (f :+: g) a -> (f :+: g) b Source #

(<$) :: a -> (f :+: g) b -> (f :+: g) a Source #

(Functor f, Functor g) => Functor (f :*: g) #

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Generics

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> (f :*: g) a -> (f :*: g) b Source #

(<$) :: a -> (f :*: g) b -> (f :*: g) a Source #

Functor ((,,,) a b c) #

Since: base-4.14.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

fmap :: (a0 -> b0) -> (a, b, c, a0) -> (a, b, c, b0) Source #

(<$) :: a0 -> (a, b, c, b0) -> (a, b, c, a0) Source #

(Functor f, Functor g) => Functor (Sum f g) #

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Functor.Sum

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> Sum f g a -> Sum f g b Source #

(<$) :: a -> Sum f g b -> Sum f g a Source #

(Functor f, Functor g) => Functor (Product f g) #

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Functor.Product

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> Product f g a -> Product f g b Source #

(<$) :: a -> Product f g b -> Product f g a Source #

Functor f => Functor (M1 i meta f) #

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Generics

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> M1 i meta f a -> M1 i meta f b Source #

(<$) :: a -> M1 i meta f b -> M1 i meta f a Source #

(Functor f, Functor g) => Functor (f :.: g) #

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Generics

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> (f :.: g) a -> (f :.: g) b Source #

(<$) :: a -> (f :.: g) b -> (f :.: g) a Source #

(Functor f, Functor g) => Functor (Compose f g) #

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Functor.Compose

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> Compose f g a -> Compose f g b Source #

(<$) :: a -> Compose f g b -> Compose f g a Source #

($>) :: Functor f => f a -> b -> f b infixl 4 Source #

Flipped version of <$.

Using ApplicativeDo: 'as $> b' can be understood as the do expression

do as
   pure b

with an inferred Functor constraint.

Examples

Expand

Replace the contents of a Maybe Int with a constant String:

>>> Nothing $> "foo"
Nothing
>>> Just 90210 $> "foo"
Just "foo"

Replace the contents of an Either Int Int with a constant String, resulting in an Either Int String:

>>> Left 8675309 $> "foo"
Left 8675309
>>> Right 8675309 $> "foo"
Right "foo"

Replace each element of a list with a constant String:

>>> [1,2,3] $> "foo"
["foo","foo","foo"]

Replace the second element of a pair with a constant String:

>>> (1,2) $> "foo"
(1,"foo")

Since: base-4.7.0.0

(<$>) :: Functor f => (a -> b) -> f a -> f b infixl 4 Source #

An infix synonym for fmap.

The name of this operator is an allusion to $. Note the similarities between their types:

 ($)  ::              (a -> b) ->   a ->   b
(<$>) :: Functor f => (a -> b) -> f a -> f b

Whereas $ is function application, <$> is function application lifted over a Functor.

Examples

Expand

Convert from a Maybe Int to a Maybe String using show:

>>> show <$> Nothing
Nothing
>>> show <$> Just 3
Just "3"

Convert from an Either Int Int to an Either Int String using show:

>>> show <$> Left 17
Left 17
>>> show <$> Right 17
Right "17"

Double each element of a list:

>>> (*2) <$> [1,2,3]
[2,4,6]

Apply even to the second element of a pair:

>>> even <$> (2,2)
(2,True)

(<&>) :: Functor f => f a -> (a -> b) -> f b infixl 1 Source #

Flipped version of <$>.

(<&>) = flip fmap

Examples

Expand

Apply (+1) to a list, a Just and a Right:

>>> Just 2 <&> (+1)
Just 3
>>> [1,2,3] <&> (+1)
[2,3,4]
>>> Right 3 <&> (+1)
Right 4

Since: base-4.11.0.0

void :: Functor f => f a -> f () Source #

void value discards or ignores the result of evaluation, such as the return value of an IO action.

Using ApplicativeDo: 'void as' can be understood as the do expression

do as
   pure ()

with an inferred Functor constraint.

Examples

Expand

Replace the contents of a Maybe Int with unit:

>>> void Nothing
Nothing
>>> void (Just 3)
Just ()

Replace the contents of an Either Int Int with unit, resulting in an Either Int '()':

>>> void (Left 8675309)
Left 8675309
>>> void (Right 8675309)
Right ()

Replace every element of a list with unit:

>>> void [1,2,3]
[(),(),()]

Replace the second element of a pair with unit:

>>> void (1,2)
(1,())

Discard the result of an IO action:

>>> mapM print [1,2]
1
2
[(),()]
>>> void $ mapM print [1,2]
1
2