base-4.14.0.0: Basic libraries
Copyright(c) The University of Glasgow 2001
LicenseBSD-style (see the file libraries/base/LICENSE)
Maintainerlibraries@haskell.org
Stabilitystable
Portabilityportable
Safe HaskellTrustworthy
LanguageHaskell2010

Data.Maybe

Description

The Maybe type, and associated operations.

Synopsis

Documentation

data Maybe a Source #

The Maybe type encapsulates an optional value. A value of type Maybe a either contains a value of type a (represented as Just a), or it is empty (represented as Nothing). Using Maybe is a good way to deal with errors or exceptional cases without resorting to drastic measures such as error.

The Maybe type is also a monad. It is a simple kind of error monad, where all errors are represented by Nothing. A richer error monad can be built using the Either type.

Constructors

Nothing 
Just a 

Instances

Instances details
Monad Maybe #

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

(>>=) :: Maybe a -> (a -> Maybe b) -> Maybe b Source #

(>>) :: Maybe a -> Maybe b -> Maybe b Source #

return :: a -> Maybe a Source #

Functor Maybe #

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> Maybe a -> Maybe b Source #

(<$) :: a -> Maybe b -> Maybe a Source #

MonadFix Maybe #

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in Control.Monad.Fix

Methods

mfix :: (a -> Maybe a) -> Maybe a Source #

MonadFail Maybe #

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Control.Monad.Fail

Methods

fail :: String -> Maybe a Source #

Applicative Maybe #

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

pure :: a -> Maybe a Source #

(<*>) :: Maybe (a -> b) -> Maybe a -> Maybe b Source #

liftA2 :: (a -> b -> c) -> Maybe a -> Maybe b -> Maybe c Source #

(*>) :: Maybe a -> Maybe b -> Maybe b Source #

(<*) :: Maybe a -> Maybe b -> Maybe a Source #

Foldable Maybe #

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in Data.Foldable

Methods

fold :: Monoid m => Maybe m -> m Source #

foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Maybe a -> m Source #

foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Maybe a -> m Source #

foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Maybe a -> b Source #

foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Maybe a -> b Source #

foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Maybe a -> b Source #

foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Maybe a -> b Source #

foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Maybe a -> a Source #

foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Maybe a -> a Source #

toList :: Maybe a -> [a] Source #

null :: Maybe a -> Bool Source #

length :: Maybe a -> Int Source #

elem :: Eq a => a -> Maybe a -> Bool Source #

maximum :: Ord a => Maybe a -> a Source #

minimum :: Ord a => Maybe a -> a Source #

sum :: Num a => Maybe a -> a Source #

product :: Num a => Maybe a -> a Source #

Traversable Maybe #

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in Data.Traversable

Methods

traverse :: Applicative f => (a -> f b) -> Maybe a -> f (Maybe b) Source #

sequenceA :: Applicative f => Maybe (f a) -> f (Maybe a) Source #

mapM :: Monad m => (a -> m b) -> Maybe a -> m (Maybe b) Source #

sequence :: Monad m => Maybe (m a) -> m (Maybe a) Source #

MonadPlus Maybe #

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

mzero :: Maybe a Source #

mplus :: Maybe a -> Maybe a -> Maybe a Source #

Alternative Maybe #

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

empty :: Maybe a Source #

(<|>) :: Maybe a -> Maybe a -> Maybe a Source #

some :: Maybe a -> Maybe [a] Source #

many :: Maybe a -> Maybe [a] Source #

MonadZip Maybe #

Since: base-4.8.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Control.Monad.Zip

Methods

mzip :: Maybe a -> Maybe b -> Maybe (a, b) Source #

mzipWith :: (a -> b -> c) -> Maybe a -> Maybe b -> Maybe c Source #

munzip :: Maybe (a, b) -> (Maybe a, Maybe b) Source #

Show1 Maybe #

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Functor.Classes

Methods

liftShowsPrec :: (Int -> a -> ShowS) -> ([a] -> ShowS) -> Int -> Maybe a -> ShowS Source #

liftShowList :: (Int -> a -> ShowS) -> ([a] -> ShowS) -> [Maybe a] -> ShowS Source #

Read1 Maybe #

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Functor.Classes

Ord1 Maybe #

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Functor.Classes

Methods

liftCompare :: (a -> b -> Ordering) -> Maybe a -> Maybe b -> Ordering Source #

Eq1 Maybe #

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Functor.Classes

Methods

liftEq :: (a -> b -> Bool) -> Maybe a -> Maybe b -> Bool Source #

Eq a => Eq (Maybe a) #

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Maybe

Methods

(==) :: Maybe a -> Maybe a -> Bool Source #

(/=) :: Maybe a -> Maybe a -> Bool Source #

Data a => Data (Maybe a) #

Since: base-4.0.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Data

Methods

gfoldl :: (forall d b. Data d => c (d -> b) -> d -> c b) -> (forall g. g -> c g) -> Maybe a -> c (Maybe a) Source #

gunfold :: (forall b r. Data b => c (b -> r) -> c r) -> (forall r. r -> c r) -> Constr -> c (Maybe a) Source #

toConstr :: Maybe a -> Constr Source #

dataTypeOf :: Maybe a -> DataType Source #

dataCast1 :: Typeable t => (forall d. Data d => c (t d)) -> Maybe (c (Maybe a)) Source #

dataCast2 :: Typeable t => (forall d e. (Data d, Data e) => c (t d e)) -> Maybe (c (Maybe a)) Source #

gmapT :: (forall b. Data b => b -> b) -> Maybe a -> Maybe a Source #

gmapQl :: (r -> r' -> r) -> r -> (forall d. Data d => d -> r') -> Maybe a -> r Source #

gmapQr :: forall r r'. (r' -> r -> r) -> r -> (forall d. Data d => d -> r') -> Maybe a -> r Source #

gmapQ :: (forall d. Data d => d -> u) -> Maybe a -> [u] Source #

gmapQi :: Int -> (forall d. Data d => d -> u) -> Maybe a -> u Source #

gmapM :: Monad m => (forall d. Data d => d -> m d) -> Maybe a -> m (Maybe a) Source #

gmapMp :: MonadPlus m => (forall d. Data d => d -> m d) -> Maybe a -> m (Maybe a) Source #

gmapMo :: MonadPlus m => (forall d. Data d => d -> m d) -> Maybe a -> m (Maybe a) Source #

Ord a => Ord (Maybe a) #

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Maybe

Methods

compare :: Maybe a -> Maybe a -> Ordering Source #

(<) :: Maybe a -> Maybe a -> Bool Source #

(<=) :: Maybe a -> Maybe a -> Bool Source #

(>) :: Maybe a -> Maybe a -> Bool Source #

(>=) :: Maybe a -> Maybe a -> Bool Source #

max :: Maybe a -> Maybe a -> Maybe a Source #

min :: Maybe a -> Maybe a -> Maybe a Source #

Read a => Read (Maybe a) #

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Read

Show a => Show (Maybe a) #

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Show

Generic (Maybe a) # 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Generics

Associated Types

type Rep (Maybe a) :: Type -> Type Source #

Methods

from :: Maybe a -> Rep (Maybe a) x Source #

to :: Rep (Maybe a) x -> Maybe a Source #

Semigroup a => Semigroup (Maybe a) #

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

(<>) :: Maybe a -> Maybe a -> Maybe a Source #

sconcat :: NonEmpty (Maybe a) -> Maybe a Source #

stimes :: Integral b => b -> Maybe a -> Maybe a Source #

Semigroup a => Monoid (Maybe a) #

Lift a semigroup into Maybe forming a Monoid according to http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monoid: "Any semigroup S may be turned into a monoid simply by adjoining an element e not in S and defining e*e = e and e*s = s = s*e for all s ∈ S."

Since 4.11.0: constraint on inner a value generalised from Monoid to Semigroup.

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

mempty :: Maybe a Source #

mappend :: Maybe a -> Maybe a -> Maybe a Source #

mconcat :: [Maybe a] -> Maybe a Source #

Generic1 Maybe # 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Generics

Associated Types

type Rep1 Maybe :: k -> Type Source #

Methods

from1 :: forall (a :: k). Maybe a -> Rep1 Maybe a Source #

to1 :: forall (a :: k). Rep1 Maybe a -> Maybe a Source #

type Rep (Maybe a) #

Since: base-4.6.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Generics

type Rep (Maybe a) = D1 ('MetaData "Maybe" "GHC.Maybe" "base" 'False) (C1 ('MetaCons "Nothing" 'PrefixI 'False) (U1 :: Type -> Type) :+: C1 ('MetaCons "Just" 'PrefixI 'False) (S1 ('MetaSel ('Nothing :: Maybe Symbol) 'NoSourceUnpackedness 'NoSourceStrictness 'DecidedLazy) (Rec0 a)))
type Rep1 Maybe #

Since: base-4.6.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Generics

type Rep1 Maybe = D1 ('MetaData "Maybe" "GHC.Maybe" "base" 'False) (C1 ('MetaCons "Nothing" 'PrefixI 'False) (U1 :: Type -> Type) :+: C1 ('MetaCons "Just" 'PrefixI 'False) (S1 ('MetaSel ('Nothing :: Maybe Symbol) 'NoSourceUnpackedness 'NoSourceStrictness 'DecidedLazy) Par1))

maybe :: b -> (a -> b) -> Maybe a -> b Source #

The maybe function takes a default value, a function, and a Maybe value. If the Maybe value is Nothing, the function returns the default value. Otherwise, it applies the function to the value inside the Just and returns the result.

Examples

Expand

Basic usage:

>>> maybe False odd (Just 3)
True
>>> maybe False odd Nothing
False

Read an integer from a string using readMaybe. If we succeed, return twice the integer; that is, apply (*2) to it. If instead we fail to parse an integer, return 0 by default:

>>> import Text.Read ( readMaybe )
>>> maybe 0 (*2) (readMaybe "5")
10
>>> maybe 0 (*2) (readMaybe "")
0

Apply show to a Maybe Int. If we have Just n, we want to show the underlying Int n. But if we have Nothing, we return the empty string instead of (for example) "Nothing":

>>> maybe "" show (Just 5)
"5"
>>> maybe "" show Nothing
""

isJust :: Maybe a -> Bool Source #

The isJust function returns True iff its argument is of the form Just _.

Examples

Expand

Basic usage:

>>> isJust (Just 3)
True
>>> isJust (Just ())
True
>>> isJust Nothing
False

Only the outer constructor is taken into consideration:

>>> isJust (Just Nothing)
True

isNothing :: Maybe a -> Bool Source #

The isNothing function returns True iff its argument is Nothing.

Examples

Expand

Basic usage:

>>> isNothing (Just 3)
False
>>> isNothing (Just ())
False
>>> isNothing Nothing
True

Only the outer constructor is taken into consideration:

>>> isNothing (Just Nothing)
False

fromJust :: HasCallStack => Maybe a -> a Source #

The fromJust function extracts the element out of a Just and throws an error if its argument is Nothing.

Examples

Expand

Basic usage:

>>> fromJust (Just 1)
1
>>> 2 * (fromJust (Just 10))
20
>>> 2 * (fromJust Nothing)
*** Exception: Maybe.fromJust: Nothing

fromMaybe :: a -> Maybe a -> a Source #

The fromMaybe function takes a default value and a Maybe value. If the Maybe is Nothing, it returns the default values; otherwise, it returns the value contained in the Maybe.

Examples

Expand

Basic usage:

>>> fromMaybe "" (Just "Hello, World!")
"Hello, World!"
>>> fromMaybe "" Nothing
""

Read an integer from a string using readMaybe. If we fail to parse an integer, we want to return 0 by default:

>>> import Text.Read ( readMaybe )
>>> fromMaybe 0 (readMaybe "5")
5
>>> fromMaybe 0 (readMaybe "")
0

listToMaybe :: [a] -> Maybe a Source #

The listToMaybe function returns Nothing on an empty list or Just a where a is the first element of the list.

Examples

Expand

Basic usage:

>>> listToMaybe []
Nothing
>>> listToMaybe [9]
Just 9
>>> listToMaybe [1,2,3]
Just 1

Composing maybeToList with listToMaybe should be the identity on singleton/empty lists:

>>> maybeToList $ listToMaybe [5]
[5]
>>> maybeToList $ listToMaybe []
[]

But not on lists with more than one element:

>>> maybeToList $ listToMaybe [1,2,3]
[1]

maybeToList :: Maybe a -> [a] Source #

The maybeToList function returns an empty list when given Nothing or a singleton list when given Just.

Examples

Expand

Basic usage:

>>> maybeToList (Just 7)
[7]
>>> maybeToList Nothing
[]

One can use maybeToList to avoid pattern matching when combined with a function that (safely) works on lists:

>>> import Text.Read ( readMaybe )
>>> sum $ maybeToList (readMaybe "3")
3
>>> sum $ maybeToList (readMaybe "")
0

catMaybes :: [Maybe a] -> [a] Source #

The catMaybes function takes a list of Maybes and returns a list of all the Just values.

Examples

Expand

Basic usage:

>>> catMaybes [Just 1, Nothing, Just 3]
[1,3]

When constructing a list of Maybe values, catMaybes can be used to return all of the "success" results (if the list is the result of a map, then mapMaybe would be more appropriate):

>>> import Text.Read ( readMaybe )
>>> [readMaybe x :: Maybe Int | x <- ["1", "Foo", "3"] ]
[Just 1,Nothing,Just 3]
>>> catMaybes $ [readMaybe x :: Maybe Int | x <- ["1", "Foo", "3"] ]
[1,3]

mapMaybe :: (a -> Maybe b) -> [a] -> [b] Source #

The mapMaybe function is a version of map which can throw out elements. In particular, the functional argument returns something of type Maybe b. If this is Nothing, no element is added on to the result list. If it is Just b, then b is included in the result list.

Examples

Expand

Using mapMaybe f x is a shortcut for catMaybes $ map f x in most cases:

>>> import Text.Read ( readMaybe )
>>> let readMaybeInt = readMaybe :: String -> Maybe Int
>>> mapMaybe readMaybeInt ["1", "Foo", "3"]
[1,3]
>>> catMaybes $ map readMaybeInt ["1", "Foo", "3"]
[1,3]

If we map the Just constructor, the entire list should be returned:

>>> mapMaybe Just [1,2,3]
[1,2,3]