base-4.16.0.0: Basic libraries

Data.List

Description

Operations on lists.

Synopsis

# Basic functions

(++) :: [a] -> [a] -> [a] infixr 5 Source #

Append two lists, i.e.,

[x1, ..., xm] ++ [y1, ..., yn] == [x1, ..., xm, y1, ..., yn]
[x1, ..., xm] ++ [y1, ...] == [x1, ..., xm, y1, ...]

If the first list is not finite, the result is the first list.

WARNING: This function takes linear time in the number of elements of the first list.

head :: HasCallStack => [a] -> a Source #

$$\mathcal{O}(1)$$. Extract the first element of a list, which must be non-empty.

>>> head [1, 2, 3]
1
>>> head [1..]
1
>>> head []
*** Exception: Prelude.head: empty list


WARNING: This function is partial. You can use case-matching, uncons or listToMaybe instead.

last :: HasCallStack => [a] -> a Source #

$$\mathcal{O}(n)$$. Extract the last element of a list, which must be finite and non-empty.

>>> last [1, 2, 3]
3
>>> last [1..]
* Hangs forever *
>>> last []
*** Exception: Prelude.last: empty list


WARNING: This function is partial. You can use reverse with case-matching, uncons or listToMaybe instead.

tail :: HasCallStack => [a] -> [a] Source #

$$\mathcal{O}(1)$$. Extract the elements after the head of a list, which must be non-empty.

>>> tail [1, 2, 3]
[2,3]
>>> tail [1]
[]
>>> tail []
*** Exception: Prelude.tail: empty list


WARNING: This function is partial. You can use case-matching or uncons instead.

init :: HasCallStack => [a] -> [a] Source #

$$\mathcal{O}(n)$$. Return all the elements of a list except the last one. The list must be non-empty.

>>> init [1, 2, 3]
[1,2]
>>> init [1]
[]
>>> init []
*** Exception: Prelude.init: empty list


WARNING: This function is partial. You can use reverse with case-matching or uncons instead.

uncons :: [a] -> Maybe (a, [a]) Source #

$$\mathcal{O}(1)$$. Decompose a list into its head and tail.

• If the list is empty, returns Nothing.
• If the list is non-empty, returns Just (x, xs), where x is the head of the list and xs its tail.
>>> uncons []
Nothing
>>> uncons [1]
Just (1,[])
>>> uncons [1, 2, 3]
Just (1,[2,3])


Since: base-4.8.0.0

singleton :: a -> [a] Source #

Produce singleton list.

>>> singleton True
[True]


Since: base-4.15.0.0

null :: Foldable t => t a -> Bool Source #

Test whether the structure is empty. The default implementation is Left-associative and lazy in both the initial element and the accumulator. Thus optimised for structures where the first element can be accessed in constant time. Structures where this is not the case should have a non-default implementation.

#### Examples

Expand

Basic usage:

>>> null []
True

>>> null [1]
False


null is expected to terminate even for infinite structures. The default implementation terminates provided the structure is bounded on the left (there is a leftmost element).

>>> null [1..]
False


Since: base-4.8.0.0

length :: Foldable t => t a -> Int Source #

Returns the size/length of a finite structure as an Int. The default implementation just counts elements starting with the leftmost. Instances for structures that can compute the element count faster than via element-by-element counting, should provide a specialised implementation.

#### Examples

Expand

Basic usage:

>>> length []
0

>>> length ['a', 'b', 'c']
3
>>> length [1..]
* Hangs forever *


Since: base-4.8.0.0

# List transformations

map :: (a -> b) -> [a] -> [b] Source #

$$\mathcal{O}(n)$$. map f xs is the list obtained by applying f to each element of xs, i.e.,

map f [x1, x2, ..., xn] == [f x1, f x2, ..., f xn]
map f [x1, x2, ...] == [f x1, f x2, ...]
>>> map (+1) [1, 2, 3]
[2,3,4]


reverse :: [a] -> [a] Source #

reverse xs returns the elements of xs in reverse order. xs must be finite.

>>> reverse []
[]
>>> reverse [42]
[42]
>>> reverse [2,5,7]
[7,5,2]
>>> reverse [1..]
* Hangs forever *


intersperse :: a -> [a] -> [a] Source #

$$\mathcal{O}(n)$$. The intersperse function takes an element and a list and intersperses' that element between the elements of the list. For example,

>>> intersperse ',' "abcde"
"a,b,c,d,e"


intercalate :: [a] -> [[a]] -> [a] Source #

intercalate xs xss is equivalent to (concat (intersperse xs xss)). It inserts the list xs in between the lists in xss and concatenates the result.

>>> intercalate ", " ["Lorem", "ipsum", "dolor"]
"Lorem, ipsum, dolor"


transpose :: [[a]] -> [[a]] Source #

The transpose function transposes the rows and columns of its argument. For example,

>>> transpose [[1,2,3],[4,5,6]]
[[1,4],[2,5],[3,6]]


If some of the rows are shorter than the following rows, their elements are skipped:

>>> transpose [[10,11],[20],[],[30,31,32]]
[[10,20,30],[11,31],[32]]


subsequences :: [a] -> [[a]] Source #

The subsequences function returns the list of all subsequences of the argument.

>>> subsequences "abc"
["","a","b","ab","c","ac","bc","abc"]


permutations :: [a] -> [[a]] Source #

The permutations function returns the list of all permutations of the argument.

>>> permutations "abc"
["abc","bac","cba","bca","cab","acb"]


# Reducing lists (folds)

foldl :: Foldable t => (b -> a -> b) -> b -> t a -> b Source #

Left-associative fold of a structure, lazy in the accumulator. This is rarely what you want, but can work well for structures with efficient right-to-left sequencing and an operator that is lazy in its left argument.

In the case of lists, foldl, when applied to a binary operator, a starting value (typically the left-identity of the operator), and a list, reduces the list using the binary operator, from left to right:

foldl f z [x1, x2, ..., xn] == (...((z f x1) f x2) f...) f xn

Note that to produce the outermost application of the operator the entire input list must be traversed. Like all left-associative folds, foldl will diverge if given an infinite list.

If you want an efficient strict left-fold, you probably want to use foldl' instead of foldl. The reason for this is that the latter does not force the inner results (e.g. z f x1 in the above example) before applying them to the operator (e.g. to (f x2)). This results in a thunk chain O(n) elements long, which then must be evaluated from the outside-in.

For a general Foldable structure this should be semantically identical to:

foldl f z = foldl f z . toList

#### Examples

Expand

The first example is a strict fold, which in practice is best performed with foldl'.

>>> foldl (+) 42 [1,2,3,4]
52


Though the result below is lazy, the input is reversed before prepending it to the initial accumulator, so corecursion begins only after traversing the entire input string.

>>> foldl (\acc c -> c : acc) "abcd" "efgh"
"hgfeabcd"


A left fold of a structure that is infinite on the right cannot terminate, even when for any finite input the fold just returns the initial accumulator:

>>> foldl (\a _ -> a) 0 $repeat 1 * Hangs forever *  WARNING: When it comes to lists, you always want to use either foldl' or foldr instead. foldl' :: Foldable t => (b -> a -> b) -> b -> t a -> b Source # Left-associative fold of a structure but with strict application of the operator. This ensures that each step of the fold is forced to Weak Head Normal Form before being applied, avoiding the collection of thunks that would otherwise occur. This is often what you want to strictly reduce a finite structure to a single strict result (e.g. sum). For a general Foldable structure this should be semantically identical to, foldl' f z = foldl' f z . toList Since: base-4.6.0.0 foldl1 :: Foldable t => (a -> a -> a) -> t a -> a Source # A variant of foldl that has no base case, and thus may only be applied to non-empty structures. This function is non-total and will raise a runtime exception if the structure happens to be empty. foldl1 f = foldl1 f . toList #### Examples Expand Basic usage: >>> foldl1 (+) [1..4] 10  >>> foldl1 (+) [] *** Exception: Prelude.foldl1: empty list  >>> foldl1 (+) Nothing *** Exception: foldl1: empty structure  >>> foldl1 (-) [1..4] -8  >>> foldl1 (&&) [True, False, True, True] False  >>> foldl1 (||) [False, False, True, True] True  >>> foldl1 (+) [1..] * Hangs forever *  foldl1' :: HasCallStack => (a -> a -> a) -> [a] -> a Source # A strict version of foldl1. foldr :: Foldable t => (a -> b -> b) -> b -> t a -> b Source # Right-associative fold of a structure, lazy in the accumulator. In the case of lists, foldr, when applied to a binary operator, a starting value (typically the right-identity of the operator), and a list, reduces the list using the binary operator, from right to left: foldr f z [x1, x2, ..., xn] == x1 f (x2 f ... (xn f z)...) Note that since the head of the resulting expression is produced by an application of the operator to the first element of the list, given an operator lazy in its right argument, foldr can produce a terminating expression from an unbounded list. For a general Foldable structure this should be semantically identical to, foldr f z = foldr f z . toList #### Examples Expand Basic usage: >>> foldr (||) False [False, True, False] True  >>> foldr (||) False [] False  >>> foldr (\c acc -> acc ++ [c]) "foo" ['a', 'b', 'c', 'd'] "foodcba"  ##### Infinite structures ⚠️ Applying foldr to infinite structures usually doesn't terminate. It may still terminate under one of the following conditions: • the folding function is short-circuiting • the folding function is lazy on its second argument ###### Short-circuiting (||) short-circuits on True values, so the following terminates because there is a True value finitely far from the left side: >>> foldr (||) False (True : repeat False) True  But the following doesn't terminate: >>> foldr (||) False (repeat False ++ [True]) * Hangs forever *  ###### Laziness in the second argument Applying foldr to infinite structures terminates when the operator is lazy in its second argument (the initial accumulator is never used in this case, and so could be left undefined, but [] is more clear): >>> take 5$ foldr (\i acc -> i : fmap (+3) acc) [] (repeat 1)
[1,4,7,10,13]


foldr1 :: Foldable t => (a -> a -> a) -> t a -> a Source #

A variant of foldr that has no base case, and thus may only be applied to non-empty structures.

This function is non-total and will raise a runtime exception if the structure happens to be empty.

#### Examples

Expand

Basic usage:

>>> foldr1 (+) [1..4]
10

>>> foldr1 (+) []
Exception: Prelude.foldr1: empty list

>>> foldr1 (+) Nothing
*** Exception: foldr1: empty structure

>>> foldr1 (-) [1..4]
-2

>>> foldr1 (&&) [True, False, True, True]
False

>>> foldr1 (||) [False, False, True, True]
True

>>> foldr1 (+) [1..]
* Hangs forever *


## Special folds

concat :: Foldable t => t [a] -> [a] Source #

The concatenation of all the elements of a container of lists.

#### Examples

Expand

Basic usage:

>>> concat (Just [1, 2, 3])
[1,2,3]

>>> concat (Left 42)
[]

>>> concat [[1, 2, 3], [4, 5], [6], []]
[1,2,3,4,5,6]


concatMap :: Foldable t => (a -> [b]) -> t a -> [b] Source #

Map a function over all the elements of a container and concatenate the resulting lists.

#### Examples

Expand

Basic usage:

>>> concatMap (take 3) [[1..], [10..], [100..], [1000..]]
[1,2,3,10,11,12,100,101,102,1000,1001,1002]

>>> concatMap (take 3) (Just [1..])
[1,2,3]


and :: Foldable t => t Bool -> Bool Source #

and returns the conjunction of a container of Bools. For the result to be True, the container must be finite; False, however, results from a False value finitely far from the left end.

#### Examples

Expand

Basic usage:

>>> and []
True

>>> and [True]
True

>>> and [False]
False

>>> and [True, True, False]
False

>>> and (False : repeat True) -- Infinite list [False,True,True,True,...
False

>>> and (repeat True)
* Hangs forever *


or :: Foldable t => t Bool -> Bool Source #

or returns the disjunction of a container of Bools. For the result to be False, the container must be finite; True, however, results from a True value finitely far from the left end.

#### Examples

Expand

Basic usage:

>>> or []
False

>>> or [True]
True

>>> or [False]
False

>>> or [True, True, False]
True

>>> or (True : repeat False) -- Infinite list [True,False,False,False,...
True

>>> or (repeat False)
* Hangs forever *


any :: Foldable t => (a -> Bool) -> t a -> Bool Source #

Determines whether any element of the structure satisfies the predicate.

#### Examples

Expand

Basic usage:

>>> any (> 3) []
False

>>> any (> 3) [1,2]
False

>>> any (> 3) [1,2,3,4,5]
True

>>> any (> 3) [1..]
True

>>> any (> 3) [0, -1..]
* Hangs forever *


all :: Foldable t => (a -> Bool) -> t a -> Bool Source #

Determines whether all elements of the structure satisfy the predicate.

#### Examples

Expand

Basic usage:

>>> all (> 3) []
True

>>> all (> 3) [1,2]
False

>>> all (> 3) [1,2,3,4,5]
False

>>> all (> 3) [1..]
False

>>> all (> 3) [4..]
* Hangs forever *


sum :: (Foldable t, Num a) => t a -> a Source #

The sum function computes the sum of the numbers of a structure.

#### Examples

Expand

Basic usage:

>>> sum []
0

>>> sum [42]
42

>>> sum [1..10]
55

>>> sum [4.1, 2.0, 1.7]
7.8

>>> sum [1..]
* Hangs forever *


Since: base-4.8.0.0

product :: (Foldable t, Num a) => t a -> a Source #

The product function computes the product of the numbers of a structure.

#### Examples

Expand

Basic usage:

>>> product []
1

>>> product [42]
42

>>> product [1..10]
3628800

>>> product [4.1, 2.0, 1.7]
13.939999999999998

>>> product [1..]
* Hangs forever *


Since: base-4.8.0.0

maximum :: forall a. (Foldable t, Ord a) => t a -> a Source #

The largest element of a non-empty structure.

This function is non-total and will raise a runtime exception if the structure happens to be empty. A structure that supports random access and maintains its elements in order should provide a specialised implementation to return the maximum in faster than linear time.

#### Examples

Expand

Basic usage:

>>> maximum [1..10]
10

>>> maximum []
*** Exception: Prelude.maximum: empty list

>>> maximum Nothing
*** Exception: maximum: empty structure


WARNING: This function is partial for possibly-empty structures like lists.

Since: base-4.8.0.0

minimum :: forall a. (Foldable t, Ord a) => t a -> a Source #

The least element of a non-empty structure.

This function is non-total and will raise a runtime exception if the structure happens to be empty. A structure that supports random access and maintains its elements in order should provide a specialised implementation to return the minimum in faster than linear time.

#### Examples

Expand

Basic usage:

>>> minimum [1..10]
1

>>> minimum []
*** Exception: Prelude.minimum: empty list

>>> minimum Nothing
*** Exception: minimum: empty structure


WARNING: This function is partial for possibly-empty structures like lists.

Since: base-4.8.0.0

# Building lists

## Scans

scanl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> [a] -> [b] Source #

$$\mathcal{O}(n)$$. scanl is similar to foldl, but returns a list of successive reduced values from the left:

scanl f z [x1, x2, ...] == [z, z f x1, (z f x1) f x2, ...]

Note that

last (scanl f z xs) == foldl f z xs
>>> scanl (+) 0 [1..4]
[0,1,3,6,10]
>>> scanl (+) 42 []
[42]
>>> scanl (-) 100 [1..4]
[100,99,97,94,90]
>>> scanl (\reversedString nextChar -> nextChar : reversedString) "foo" ['a', 'b', 'c', 'd']
["foo","afoo","bafoo","cbafoo","dcbafoo"]
>>> scanl (+) 0 [1..]
* Hangs forever *


scanl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> [a] -> [b] Source #

$$\mathcal{O}(n)$$. A strict version of scanl.

scanl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> [a] -> [a] Source #

$$\mathcal{O}(n)$$. scanl1 is a variant of scanl that has no starting value argument:

scanl1 f [x1, x2, ...] == [x1, x1 f x2, ...]
>>> scanl1 (+) [1..4]
[1,3,6,10]
>>> scanl1 (+) []
[]
>>> scanl1 (-) [1..4]
[1,-1,-4,-8]
>>> scanl1 (&&) [True, False, True, True]
[True,False,False,False]
>>> scanl1 (||) [False, False, True, True]
[False,False,True,True]
>>> scanl1 (+) [1..]
* Hangs forever *


scanr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> [a] -> [b] Source #

$$\mathcal{O}(n)$$. scanr is the right-to-left dual of scanl. Note that the order of parameters on the accumulating function are reversed compared to scanl. Also note that

head (scanr f z xs) == foldr f z xs.
>>> scanr (+) 0 [1..4]
[10,9,7,4,0]
>>> scanr (+) 42 []
[42]
>>> scanr (-) 100 [1..4]
[98,-97,99,-96,100]
>>> scanr (\nextChar reversedString -> nextChar : reversedString) "foo" ['a', 'b', 'c', 'd']
["abcdfoo","bcdfoo","cdfoo","dfoo","foo"]
>>> force $scanr (+) 0 [1..] *** Exception: stack overflow  scanr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> [a] -> [a] Source # $$\mathcal{O}(n)$$. scanr1 is a variant of scanr that has no starting value argument. >>> scanr1 (+) [1..4] [10,9,7,4] >>> scanr1 (+) [] [] >>> scanr1 (-) [1..4] [-2,3,-1,4] >>> scanr1 (&&) [True, False, True, True] [False,False,True,True] >>> scanr1 (||) [True, True, False, False] [True,True,False,False] >>> force$ scanr1 (+) [1..]
*** Exception: stack overflow


## Accumulating maps

mapAccumL :: forall t s a b. Traversable t => (s -> a -> (s, b)) -> s -> t a -> (s, t b) Source #

The mapAccumL function behaves like a combination of fmap and foldl; it applies a function to each element of a structure, passing an accumulating parameter from left to right, and returning a final value of this accumulator together with the new structure.

#### Examples

Expand

Basic usage:

>>> mapAccumL (\a b -> (a + b, a)) 0 [1..10]
(55,[0,1,3,6,10,15,21,28,36,45])

>>> mapAccumL (\a b -> (a <> show b, a)) "0" [1..5]
("012345",["0","01","012","0123","01234"])


mapAccumR :: forall t s a b. Traversable t => (s -> a -> (s, b)) -> s -> t a -> (s, t b) Source #

The mapAccumR function behaves like a combination of fmap and foldr; it applies a function to each element of a structure, passing an accumulating parameter from right to left, and returning a final value of this accumulator together with the new structure.

#### Examples

Expand

Basic usage:

>>> mapAccumR (\a b -> (a + b, a)) 0 [1..10]
(55,[54,52,49,45,40,34,27,19,10,0])

>>> mapAccumR (\a b -> (a <> show b, a)) "0" [1..5]
("054321",["05432","0543","054","05","0"])


## Infinite lists

iterate :: (a -> a) -> a -> [a] Source #

iterate f x returns an infinite list of repeated applications of f to x:

iterate f x == [x, f x, f (f x), ...]

Note that iterate is lazy, potentially leading to thunk build-up if the consumer doesn't force each iterate. See iterate' for a strict variant of this function.

>>> take 10 $iterate not True [True,False,True,False... >>> take 10$ iterate (+3) 42
[42,45,48,51,54,57,60,63...


iterate' :: (a -> a) -> a -> [a] Source #

iterate' is the strict version of iterate.

It forces the result of each application of the function to weak head normal form (WHNF) before proceeding.

repeat :: a -> [a] Source #

repeat x is an infinite list, with x the value of every element.

>>> take 20 $repeat 17 [17,17,17,17,17,17,17,17,17...  replicate :: Int -> a -> [a] Source # replicate n x is a list of length n with x the value of every element. It is an instance of the more general genericReplicate, in which n may be of any integral type. >>> replicate 0 True [] >>> replicate (-1) True [] >>> replicate 4 True [True,True,True,True]  cycle :: HasCallStack => [a] -> [a] Source # cycle ties a finite list into a circular one, or equivalently, the infinite repetition of the original list. It is the identity on infinite lists. >>> cycle [] *** Exception: Prelude.cycle: empty list >>> take 20$ cycle [42]
[42,42,42,42,42,42,42,42,42,42...
>>> take 20 $cycle [2, 5, 7] [2,5,7,2,5,7,2,5,7,2,5,7...  ## Unfolding unfoldr :: (b -> Maybe (a, b)) -> b -> [a] Source # The unfoldr function is a dual' to foldr: while foldr reduces a list to a summary value, unfoldr builds a list from a seed value. The function takes the element and returns Nothing if it is done producing the list or returns Just (a,b), in which case, a is a prepended to the list and b is used as the next element in a recursive call. For example, iterate f == unfoldr (\x -> Just (x, f x)) In some cases, unfoldr can undo a foldr operation: unfoldr f' (foldr f z xs) == xs if the following holds: f' (f x y) = Just (x,y) f' z = Nothing A simple use of unfoldr: >>> unfoldr (\b -> if b == 0 then Nothing else Just (b, b-1)) 10 [10,9,8,7,6,5,4,3,2,1]  # Sublists ## Extracting sublists take :: Int -> [a] -> [a] Source # take n, applied to a list xs, returns the prefix of xs of length n, or xs itself if n >= length xs. >>> take 5 "Hello World!" "Hello" >>> take 3 [1,2,3,4,5] [1,2,3] >>> take 3 [1,2] [1,2] >>> take 3 [] [] >>> take (-1) [1,2] [] >>> take 0 [1,2] []  It is an instance of the more general genericTake, in which n may be of any integral type. drop :: Int -> [a] -> [a] Source # drop n xs returns the suffix of xs after the first n elements, or [] if n >= length xs. >>> drop 6 "Hello World!" "World!" >>> drop 3 [1,2,3,4,5] [4,5] >>> drop 3 [1,2] [] >>> drop 3 [] [] >>> drop (-1) [1,2] [1,2] >>> drop 0 [1,2] [1,2]  It is an instance of the more general genericDrop, in which n may be of any integral type. splitAt :: Int -> [a] -> ([a], [a]) Source # splitAt n xs returns a tuple where first element is xs prefix of length n and second element is the remainder of the list: >>> splitAt 6 "Hello World!" ("Hello ","World!") >>> splitAt 3 [1,2,3,4,5] ([1,2,3],[4,5]) >>> splitAt 1 [1,2,3] ([1],[2,3]) >>> splitAt 3 [1,2,3] ([1,2,3],[]) >>> splitAt 4 [1,2,3] ([1,2,3],[]) >>> splitAt 0 [1,2,3] ([],[1,2,3]) >>> splitAt (-1) [1,2,3] ([],[1,2,3])  It is equivalent to (take n xs, drop n xs) when n is not _|_ (splitAt _|_ xs = _|_). splitAt is an instance of the more general genericSplitAt, in which n may be of any integral type. takeWhile :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [a] Source # takeWhile, applied to a predicate p and a list xs, returns the longest prefix (possibly empty) of xs of elements that satisfy p. >>> takeWhile (< 3) [1,2,3,4,1,2,3,4] [1,2] >>> takeWhile (< 9) [1,2,3] [1,2,3] >>> takeWhile (< 0) [1,2,3] []  dropWhile :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [a] Source # dropWhile p xs returns the suffix remaining after takeWhile p xs. >>> dropWhile (< 3) [1,2,3,4,5,1,2,3] [3,4,5,1,2,3] >>> dropWhile (< 9) [1,2,3] [] >>> dropWhile (< 0) [1,2,3] [1,2,3]  dropWhileEnd :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [a] Source # The dropWhileEnd function drops the largest suffix of a list in which the given predicate holds for all elements. For example: >>> dropWhileEnd isSpace "foo\n" "foo"  >>> dropWhileEnd isSpace "foo bar" "foo bar"  dropWhileEnd isSpace ("foo\n" ++ undefined) == "foo" ++ undefined Since: base-4.5.0.0 span :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> ([a], [a]) Source # span, applied to a predicate p and a list xs, returns a tuple where first element is longest prefix (possibly empty) of xs of elements that satisfy p and second element is the remainder of the list: >>> span (< 3) [1,2,3,4,1,2,3,4] ([1,2],[3,4,1,2,3,4]) >>> span (< 9) [1,2,3] ([1,2,3],[]) >>> span (< 0) [1,2,3] ([],[1,2,3])  span p xs is equivalent to (takeWhile p xs, dropWhile p xs) break :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> ([a], [a]) Source # break, applied to a predicate p and a list xs, returns a tuple where first element is longest prefix (possibly empty) of xs of elements that do not satisfy p and second element is the remainder of the list: >>> break (> 3) [1,2,3,4,1,2,3,4] ([1,2,3],[4,1,2,3,4]) >>> break (< 9) [1,2,3] ([],[1,2,3]) >>> break (> 9) [1,2,3] ([1,2,3],[])  break p is equivalent to span (not . p). stripPrefix :: Eq a => [a] -> [a] -> Maybe [a] Source # $$\mathcal{O}(\min(m,n))$$. The stripPrefix function drops the given prefix from a list. It returns Nothing if the list did not start with the prefix given, or Just the list after the prefix, if it does. >>> stripPrefix "foo" "foobar" Just "bar"  >>> stripPrefix "foo" "foo" Just ""  >>> stripPrefix "foo" "barfoo" Nothing  >>> stripPrefix "foo" "barfoobaz" Nothing  group :: Eq a => [a] -> [[a]] Source # The group function takes a list and returns a list of lists such that the concatenation of the result is equal to the argument. Moreover, each sublist in the result contains only equal elements. For example, >>> group "Mississippi" ["M","i","ss","i","ss","i","pp","i"]  It is a special case of groupBy, which allows the programmer to supply their own equality test. inits :: [a] -> [[a]] Source # The inits function returns all initial segments of the argument, shortest first. For example, >>> inits "abc" ["","a","ab","abc"]  Note that inits has the following strictness property: inits (xs ++ _|_) = inits xs ++ _|_ In particular, inits _|_ = [] : _|_ tails :: [a] -> [[a]] Source # $$\mathcal{O}(n)$$. The tails function returns all final segments of the argument, longest first. For example, >>> tails "abc" ["abc","bc","c",""]  Note that tails has the following strictness property: tails _|_ = _|_ : _|_ ## Predicates isPrefixOf :: Eq a => [a] -> [a] -> Bool Source # $$\mathcal{O}(\min(m,n))$$. The isPrefixOf function takes two lists and returns True iff the first list is a prefix of the second. >>> "Hello" isPrefixOf "Hello World!" True  >>> "Hello" isPrefixOf "Wello Horld!" False  isSuffixOf :: Eq a => [a] -> [a] -> Bool Source # The isSuffixOf function takes two lists and returns True iff the first list is a suffix of the second. The second list must be finite. >>> "ld!" isSuffixOf "Hello World!" True  >>> "World" isSuffixOf "Hello World!" False  isInfixOf :: Eq a => [a] -> [a] -> Bool Source # The isInfixOf function takes two lists and returns True iff the first list is contained, wholly and intact, anywhere within the second. >>> isInfixOf "Haskell" "I really like Haskell." True  >>> isInfixOf "Ial" "I really like Haskell." False  isSubsequenceOf :: Eq a => [a] -> [a] -> Bool Source # The isSubsequenceOf function takes two lists and returns True if all the elements of the first list occur, in order, in the second. The elements do not have to occur consecutively. isSubsequenceOf x y is equivalent to elem x (subsequences y). #### Examples Expand >>> isSubsequenceOf "GHC" "The Glorious Haskell Compiler" True >>> isSubsequenceOf ['a','d'..'z'] ['a'..'z'] True >>> isSubsequenceOf [1..10] [10,9..0] False  Since: base-4.8.0.0 # Searching lists ## Searching by equality elem :: (Foldable t, Eq a) => a -> t a -> Bool infix 4 Source # Does the element occur in the structure? Note: elem is often used in infix form. #### Examples Expand Basic usage: >>> 3 elem [] False  >>> 3 elem [1,2] False  >>> 3 elem [1,2,3,4,5] True  For infinite structures, the default implementation of elem terminates if the sought-after value exists at a finite distance from the left side of the structure: >>> 3 elem [1..] True  >>> 3 elem ([4..] ++ [3]) * Hangs forever *  Since: base-4.8.0.0 notElem :: (Foldable t, Eq a) => a -> t a -> Bool infix 4 Source # notElem is the negation of elem. #### Examples Expand Basic usage: >>> 3 notElem [] True  >>> 3 notElem [1,2] True  >>> 3 notElem [1,2,3,4,5] False  For infinite structures, notElem terminates if the value exists at a finite distance from the left side of the structure: >>> 3 notElem [1..] False  >>> 3 notElem ([4..] ++ [3]) * Hangs forever *  lookup :: Eq a => a -> [(a, b)] -> Maybe b Source # $$\mathcal{O}(n)$$. lookup key assocs looks up a key in an association list. >>> lookup 2 [] Nothing >>> lookup 2 [(1, "first")] Nothing >>> lookup 2 [(1, "first"), (2, "second"), (3, "third")] Just "second"  ## Searching with a predicate find :: Foldable t => (a -> Bool) -> t a -> Maybe a Source # The find function takes a predicate and a structure and returns the leftmost element of the structure matching the predicate, or Nothing if there is no such element. #### Examples Expand Basic usage: >>> find (> 42) [0, 5..] Just 45  >>> find (> 12) [1..7] Nothing  filter :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [a] Source # $$\mathcal{O}(n)$$. filter, applied to a predicate and a list, returns the list of those elements that satisfy the predicate; i.e., filter p xs = [ x | x <- xs, p x] >>> filter odd [1, 2, 3] [1,3]  partition :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> ([a], [a]) Source # The partition function takes a predicate and a list, and returns the pair of lists of elements which do and do not satisfy the predicate, respectively; i.e., partition p xs == (filter p xs, filter (not . p) xs) >>> partition (elem "aeiou") "Hello World!" ("eoo","Hll Wrld!")  # Indexing lists These functions treat a list xs as a indexed collection, with indices ranging from 0 to length xs - 1. (!!) :: HasCallStack => [a] -> Int -> a infixl 9 Source # List index (subscript) operator, starting from 0. It is an instance of the more general genericIndex, which takes an index of any integral type. >>> ['a', 'b', 'c'] !! 0 'a' >>> ['a', 'b', 'c'] !! 2 'c' >>> ['a', 'b', 'c'] !! 3 *** Exception: Prelude.!!: index too large >>> ['a', 'b', 'c'] !! (-1) *** Exception: Prelude.!!: negative index  WARNING: This function is partial. You can use <atMay https://hackage.haskell.org/package/safe-0.3.19/docs/Safe.html#v:atMay> instead. elemIndex :: Eq a => a -> [a] -> Maybe Int Source # The elemIndex function returns the index of the first element in the given list which is equal (by ==) to the query element, or Nothing if there is no such element. >>> elemIndex 4 [0..] Just 4  elemIndices :: Eq a => a -> [a] -> [Int] Source # The elemIndices function extends elemIndex, by returning the indices of all elements equal to the query element, in ascending order. >>> elemIndices 'o' "Hello World" [4,7]  findIndex :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> Maybe Int Source # The findIndex function takes a predicate and a list and returns the index of the first element in the list satisfying the predicate, or Nothing if there is no such element. >>> findIndex isSpace "Hello World!" Just 5  findIndices :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [Int] Source # The findIndices function extends findIndex, by returning the indices of all elements satisfying the predicate, in ascending order. >>> findIndices (elem "aeiou") "Hello World!" [1,4,7]  # Zipping and unzipping lists zip :: [a] -> [b] -> [(a, b)] Source # $$\mathcal{O}(\min(m,n))$$. zip takes two lists and returns a list of corresponding pairs. >>> zip [1, 2] ['a', 'b'] [(1,'a'),(2,'b')]  If one input list is shorter than the other, excess elements of the longer list are discarded, even if one of the lists is infinite: >>> zip [1] ['a', 'b'] [(1,'a')] >>> zip [1, 2] ['a'] [(1,'a')] >>> zip [] [1..] [] >>> zip [1..] [] []  zip is right-lazy: >>> zip [] undefined [] >>> zip undefined [] *** Exception: Prelude.undefined ...  zip is capable of list fusion, but it is restricted to its first list argument and its resulting list. zip3 :: [a] -> [b] -> [c] -> [(a, b, c)] Source # zip3 takes three lists and returns a list of triples, analogous to zip. It is capable of list fusion, but it is restricted to its first list argument and its resulting list. zip4 :: [a] -> [b] -> [c] -> [d] -> [(a, b, c, d)] Source # The zip4 function takes four lists and returns a list of quadruples, analogous to zip. It is capable of list fusion, but it is restricted to its first list argument and its resulting list. zip5 :: [a] -> [b] -> [c] -> [d] -> [e] -> [(a, b, c, d, e)] Source # The zip5 function takes five lists and returns a list of five-tuples, analogous to zip. It is capable of list fusion, but it is restricted to its first list argument and its resulting list. zip6 :: [a] -> [b] -> [c] -> [d] -> [e] -> [f] -> [(a, b, c, d, e, f)] Source # The zip6 function takes six lists and returns a list of six-tuples, analogous to zip. It is capable of list fusion, but it is restricted to its first list argument and its resulting list. zip7 :: [a] -> [b] -> [c] -> [d] -> [e] -> [f] -> [g] -> [(a, b, c, d, e, f, g)] Source # The zip7 function takes seven lists and returns a list of seven-tuples, analogous to zip. It is capable of list fusion, but it is restricted to its first list argument and its resulting list. zipWith :: (a -> b -> c) -> [a] -> [b] -> [c] Source # $$\mathcal{O}(\min(m,n))$$. zipWith generalises zip by zipping with the function given as the first argument, instead of a tupling function. zipWith (,) xs ys == zip xs ys zipWith f [x1,x2,x3..] [y1,y2,y3..] == [f x1 y1, f x2 y2, f x3 y3..] For example, zipWith (+) is applied to two lists to produce the list of corresponding sums: >>> zipWith (+) [1, 2, 3] [4, 5, 6] [5,7,9]  zipWith is right-lazy: >>> let f = undefined >>> zipWith f [] undefined []  zipWith is capable of list fusion, but it is restricted to its first list argument and its resulting list. zipWith3 :: (a -> b -> c -> d) -> [a] -> [b] -> [c] -> [d] Source # The zipWith3 function takes a function which combines three elements, as well as three lists and returns a list of the function applied to corresponding elements, analogous to zipWith. It is capable of list fusion, but it is restricted to its first list argument and its resulting list. zipWith3 (,,) xs ys zs == zip3 xs ys zs zipWith3 f [x1,x2,x3..] [y1,y2,y3..] [z1,z2,z3..] == [f x1 y1 z1, f x2 y2 z2, f x3 y3 z3..] zipWith4 :: (a -> b -> c -> d -> e) -> [a] -> [b] -> [c] -> [d] -> [e] Source # The zipWith4 function takes a function which combines four elements, as well as four lists and returns a list of their point-wise combination, analogous to zipWith. It is capable of list fusion, but it is restricted to its first list argument and its resulting list. zipWith5 :: (a -> b -> c -> d -> e -> f) -> [a] -> [b] -> [c] -> [d] -> [e] -> [f] Source # The zipWith5 function takes a function which combines five elements, as well as five lists and returns a list of their point-wise combination, analogous to zipWith. It is capable of list fusion, but it is restricted to its first list argument and its resulting list. zipWith6 :: (a -> b -> c -> d -> e -> f -> g) -> [a] -> [b] -> [c] -> [d] -> [e] -> [f] -> [g] Source # The zipWith6 function takes a function which combines six elements, as well as six lists and returns a list of their point-wise combination, analogous to zipWith. It is capable of list fusion, but it is restricted to its first list argument and its resulting list. zipWith7 :: (a -> b -> c -> d -> e -> f -> g -> h) -> [a] -> [b] -> [c] -> [d] -> [e] -> [f] -> [g] -> [h] Source # The zipWith7 function takes a function which combines seven elements, as well as seven lists and returns a list of their point-wise combination, analogous to zipWith. It is capable of list fusion, but it is restricted to its first list argument and its resulting list. unzip :: [(a, b)] -> ([a], [b]) Source # unzip transforms a list of pairs into a list of first components and a list of second components. >>> unzip [] ([],[]) >>> unzip [(1, 'a'), (2, 'b')] ([1,2],"ab")  unzip3 :: [(a, b, c)] -> ([a], [b], [c]) Source # The unzip3 function takes a list of triples and returns three lists, analogous to unzip. >>> unzip3 [] ([],[],[]) >>> unzip3 [(1, 'a', True), (2, 'b', False)] ([1,2],"ab",[True,False])  unzip4 :: [(a, b, c, d)] -> ([a], [b], [c], [d]) Source # The unzip4 function takes a list of quadruples and returns four lists, analogous to unzip. unzip5 :: [(a, b, c, d, e)] -> ([a], [b], [c], [d], [e]) Source # The unzip5 function takes a list of five-tuples and returns five lists, analogous to unzip. unzip6 :: [(a, b, c, d, e, f)] -> ([a], [b], [c], [d], [e], [f]) Source # The unzip6 function takes a list of six-tuples and returns six lists, analogous to unzip. unzip7 :: [(a, b, c, d, e, f, g)] -> ([a], [b], [c], [d], [e], [f], [g]) Source # The unzip7 function takes a list of seven-tuples and returns seven lists, analogous to unzip. # Special lists ## Functions on strings lines :: String -> [String] Source # Splits the argument into a list of lines stripped of their terminating n characters. The n terminator is optional in a final non-empty line of the argument string. For example: >>> lines "" -- empty input contains no lines []  >>> lines "\n" -- single empty line [""]  >>> lines "one" -- single unterminated line ["one"]  >>> lines "one\n" -- single non-empty line ["one"]  >>> lines "one\n\n" -- second line is empty ["one",""]  >>> lines "one\ntwo" -- second line is unterminated ["one","two"]  >>> lines "one\ntwo\n" -- two non-empty lines ["one","two"]  When the argument string is empty, or ends in a n character, it can be recovered by passing the result of lines to the unlines function. Otherwise, unlines appends the missing terminating n. This makes unlines . lines idempotent: (unlines . lines) . (unlines . lines) = (unlines . lines) words :: String -> [String] Source # words breaks a string up into a list of words, which were delimited by white space. >>> words "Lorem ipsum\ndolor" ["Lorem","ipsum","dolor"]  unlines :: [String] -> String Source # Appends a n character to each input string, then concatenates the results. Equivalent to foldMap (s -> s ++ "n"). >>> unlines ["Hello", "World", "!"] "Hello\nWorld\n!\n"  # Note unlines . lines /= id when the input is not n-terminated: >>> unlines . lines$ "foo\nbar"
"foo\nbar\n"


unwords :: [String] -> String Source #

unwords is an inverse operation to words. It joins words with separating spaces.

>>> unwords ["Lorem", "ipsum", "dolor"]
"Lorem ipsum dolor"


## "Set" operations

nub :: Eq a => [a] -> [a] Source #

$$\mathcal{O}(n^2)$$. The nub function removes duplicate elements from a list. In particular, it keeps only the first occurrence of each element. (The name nub means essence'.) It is a special case of nubBy, which allows the programmer to supply their own equality test.

>>> nub [1,2,3,4,3,2,1,2,4,3,5]
[1,2,3,4,5]


delete :: Eq a => a -> [a] -> [a] Source #

$$\mathcal{O}(n)$$. delete x removes the first occurrence of x from its list argument. For example,

>>> delete 'a' "banana"
"bnana"


It is a special case of deleteBy, which allows the programmer to supply their own equality test.

(\\) :: Eq a => [a] -> [a] -> [a] infix 5 Source #

The \\ function is list difference (non-associative). In the result of xs \\ ys, the first occurrence of each element of ys in turn (if any) has been removed from xs. Thus

(xs ++ ys) \\ xs == ys.
>>> "Hello World!" \\ "ell W"
"Hoorld!"


It is a special case of deleteFirstsBy, which allows the programmer to supply their own equality test.

union :: Eq a => [a] -> [a] -> [a] Source #

The union function returns the list union of the two lists. For example,

>>> "dog" union "cow"
"dogcw"


Duplicates, and elements of the first list, are removed from the the second list, but if the first list contains duplicates, so will the result. It is a special case of unionBy, which allows the programmer to supply their own equality test.

intersect :: Eq a => [a] -> [a] -> [a] Source #

The intersect function takes the list intersection of two lists. For example,

>>> [1,2,3,4] intersect [2,4,6,8]
[2,4]


If the first list contains duplicates, so will the result.

>>> [1,2,2,3,4] intersect [6,4,4,2]
[2,2,4]


It is a special case of intersectBy, which allows the programmer to supply their own equality test. If the element is found in both the first and the second list, the element from the first list will be used.

## Ordered lists

sort :: Ord a => [a] -> [a] Source #

The sort function implements a stable sorting algorithm. It is a special case of sortBy, which allows the programmer to supply their own comparison function.

Elements are arranged from lowest to highest, keeping duplicates in the order they appeared in the input.

>>> sort [1,6,4,3,2,5]
[1,2,3,4,5,6]


sortOn :: Ord b => (a -> b) -> [a] -> [a] Source #

Sort a list by comparing the results of a key function applied to each element. sortOn f is equivalent to sortBy (comparing f), but has the performance advantage of only evaluating f once for each element in the input list. This is called the decorate-sort-undecorate paradigm, or Schwartzian transform.

Elements are arranged from lowest to highest, keeping duplicates in the order they appeared in the input.

>>> sortOn fst [(2, "world"), (4, "!"), (1, "Hello")]
[(1,"Hello"),(2,"world"),(4,"!")]


Since: base-4.8.0.0

insert :: Ord a => a -> [a] -> [a] Source #

$$\mathcal{O}(n)$$. The insert function takes an element and a list and inserts the element into the list at the first position where it is less than or equal to the next element. In particular, if the list is sorted before the call, the result will also be sorted. It is a special case of insertBy, which allows the programmer to supply their own comparison function.

>>> insert 4 [1,2,3,5,6,7]
[1,2,3,4,5,6,7]


# Generalized functions

## The "By" operations

By convention, overloaded functions have a non-overloaded counterpart whose name is suffixed with By'.

It is often convenient to use these functions together with on, for instance sortBy (compare on fst).

### User-supplied equality (replacing an Eq context)

The predicate is assumed to define an equivalence.

nubBy :: (a -> a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [a] Source #

The nubBy function behaves just like nub, except it uses a user-supplied equality predicate instead of the overloaded == function.

>>> nubBy (\x y -> mod x 3 == mod y 3) [1,2,4,5,6]
[1,2,6]


deleteBy :: (a -> a -> Bool) -> a -> [a] -> [a] Source #

$$\mathcal{O}(n)$$. The deleteBy function behaves like delete, but takes a user-supplied equality predicate.

>>> deleteBy (<=) 4 [1..10]
[1,2,3,5,6,7,8,9,10]


deleteFirstsBy :: (a -> a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [a] -> [a] Source #

The deleteFirstsBy function takes a predicate and two lists and returns the first list with the first occurrence of each element of the second list removed.

unionBy :: (a -> a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [a] -> [a] Source #

The unionBy function is the non-overloaded version of union.

intersectBy :: (a -> a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [a] -> [a] Source #

The intersectBy function is the non-overloaded version of intersect.

groupBy :: (a -> a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [[a]] Source #

The groupBy function is the non-overloaded version of group.

### User-supplied comparison (replacing an Ord context)

The function is assumed to define a total ordering.

sortBy :: (a -> a -> Ordering) -> [a] -> [a] Source #

The sortBy function is the non-overloaded version of sort.

>>> sortBy ($$a,_) (b,_) -> compare a b) [(2, "world"), (4, "!"), (1, "Hello")] [(1,"Hello"),(2,"world"),(4,"!")]  insertBy :: (a -> a -> Ordering) -> a -> [a] -> [a] Source # \(\mathcal{O}(n)$$. The non-overloaded version of insert.

maximumBy :: Foldable t => (a -> a -> Ordering) -> t a -> a Source #

The largest element of a non-empty structure with respect to the given comparison function.

#### Examples

Expand

Basic usage:

>>> maximumBy (compare on length) ["Hello", "World", "!", "Longest", "bar"]
"Longest"


WARNING: This function is partial for possibly-empty structures like lists.

minimumBy :: Foldable t => (a -> a -> Ordering) -> t a -> a Source #

The least element of a non-empty structure with respect to the given comparison function.

#### Examples

Expand

Basic usage:

>>> minimumBy (compare on length) ["Hello", "World", "!", "Longest", "bar"]
"!"


WARNING: This function is partial for possibly-empty structures like lists.

## The "generic" operations

The prefix generic' indicates an overloaded function that is a generalized version of a Prelude function.

genericLength :: Num i => [a] -> i Source #

$$\mathcal{O}(n)$$. The genericLength function is an overloaded version of length. In particular, instead of returning an Int, it returns any type which is an instance of Num. It is, however, less efficient than length.

>>> genericLength [1, 2, 3] :: Int
3
>>> genericLength [1, 2, 3] :: Float
3.0


Users should take care to pick a return type that is wide enough to contain the full length of the list. If the width is insufficient, the overflow behaviour will depend on the (+) implementation in the selected Num instance. The following example overflows because the actual list length of 200 lies outside of the Int8 range of -128..127.

>>> genericLength [1..200] :: Int8
-56


genericTake :: Integral i => i -> [a] -> [a] Source #

The genericTake function is an overloaded version of take, which accepts any Integral value as the number of elements to take.

genericDrop :: Integral i => i -> [a] -> [a] Source #

The genericDrop function is an overloaded version of drop, which accepts any Integral value as the number of elements to drop.

genericSplitAt :: Integral i => i -> [a] -> ([a], [a]) Source #

The genericSplitAt function is an overloaded version of splitAt, which accepts any Integral value as the position at which to split.

genericIndex :: Integral i => [a] -> i -> a Source #

The genericIndex function is an overloaded version of !!, which accepts any Integral value as the index.

genericReplicate :: Integral i => i -> a -> [a] Source #

The genericReplicate function is an overloaded version of replicate, which accepts any Integral` value as the number of repetitions to make.