base-4.19.0.0: Basic libraries

GHC.OldList

Description

This legacy module provides access to the list-specialised operations of Data.List. This module may go away again in future GHC versions and is provided as transitional tool to access some of the list-specialised operations that had to be generalised due to the implementation of the Foldable/Traversable-in-Prelude Proposal (FTP).

If the operations needed are available in GHC.List, it's recommended to avoid importing this module and use GHC.List instead for now.

Since: base-4.8.0.0

Synopsis

# Documentation

group :: Eq a => [a] -> [[a]] Source #

The group function takes a list and returns a list of lists such that the concatenation of the result is equal to the argument. Moreover, each sublist in the result is non-empty and all elements are equal to the first one.

group is a special case of groupBy, which allows the programmer to supply their own equality test.

It's often preferable to use Data.List.NonEmpty.group, which provides type-level guarantees of non-emptiness of inner lists.

#### Examples

Expand
>>> group "Mississippi"
["M","i","ss","i","ss","i","pp","i"]

>>> group [1, 1, 1, 2, 2, 3, 4, 5, 5]
[[1,1,1],[2,2],[3],[4],[5,5]]


repeat :: a -> [a] Source #

repeat x is an infinite list, with x the value of every element.

#### Examples

Expand
>>> take 10 $repeat 17 [17,17,17,17,17,17,17,17,17, 17]  >>> repeat undefined [*** Exception: Prelude.undefined  zipWith :: (a -> b -> c) -> [a] -> [b] -> [c] Source # $$\mathcal{O}(\min(m,n))$$. zipWith generalises zip by zipping with the function given as the first argument, instead of a tupling function. zipWith (,) xs ys == zip xs ys zipWith f [x1,x2,x3..] [y1,y2,y3..] == [f x1 y1, f x2 y2, f x3 y3..] zipWith is right-lazy: >>> let f = undefined >>> zipWith f [] undefined []  zipWith is capable of list fusion, but it is restricted to its first list argument and its resulting list. #### Examples Expand zipWith (+) can be applied to two lists to produce the list of corresponding sums: >>> zipWith (+) [1, 2, 3] [4, 5, 6] [5,7,9]  >>> zipWith (++) ["hello ", "foo"] ["world!", "bar"] ["hello world!","foobar"]  unzip :: [(a, b)] -> ([a], [b]) Source # unzip transforms a list of pairs into a list of first components and a list of second components. #### Examples Expand >>> unzip [] ([],[])  >>> unzip [(1, 'a'), (2, 'b')] ([1,2],"ab")  head :: HasCallStack => [a] -> a Source # Warning: This is a partial function, it throws an error on empty lists. Use pattern matching or Data.List.uncons instead. Consider refactoring to use Data.List.NonEmpty. $$\mathcal{O}(1)$$. Extract the first element of a list, which must be non-empty. ##### Examples Expand >>> head [1, 2, 3] 1  >>> head [1..] 1  >>> head [] *** Exception: Prelude.head: empty list  drop :: Int -> [a] -> [a] Source # drop n xs returns the suffix of xs after the first n elements, or [] if n >= length xs. It is an instance of the more general genericDrop, in which n may be of any integral type. #### Examples Expand >>> drop 6 "Hello World!" "World!"  >>> drop 3 [1,2,3,4,5] [4,5]  >>> drop 3 [1,2] []  >>> drop 3 [] []  >>> drop (-1) [1,2] [1,2]  >>> drop 0 [1,2] [1,2]  findIndex :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> Maybe Int Source # The findIndex function takes a predicate and a list and returns the index of the first element in the list satisfying the predicate, or Nothing if there is no such element. For the result to be Nothing, the list must be finite. #### Examples Expand >>> findIndex isSpace "Hello World!" Just 5  >>> findIndex odd [0, 2, 4, 6] Nothing  >>> findIndex even [1..] Just 1  >>> findIndex odd [0, 2 ..] * hangs forever *  concat :: [[a]] -> [a] Source # Concatenate a list of lists. #### Examples Expand >>> concat [[1,2,3], [4,5], [6], []] [1,2,3,4,5,6]  >>> concat [] []  >>> concat [[42]] [42]  concatMap :: (a -> [b]) -> [a] -> [b] Source # Map a function returning a list over a list and concatenate the results. concatMap can be seen as the composition of concat and map. concatMap f xs == (concat . map f) xs #### Examples Expand >>> concatMap (\i -> [-i,i]) [] []  >>> concatMap (\i -> [-i, i]) [1, 2, 3] [-1,1,-2,2,-3,3]  >>> concatMap ('replicate' 3) [0, 2, 4] [0,0,0,2,2,2,4,4,4]  and :: [Bool] -> Bool Source # and returns the conjunction of a Boolean list. For the result to be True, the list must be finite; False, however, results from a False value at a finite index of a finite or infinite list. #### Examples Expand >>> and [] True  >>> and [True] True  >>> and [False] False  >>> and [True, True, False] False  >>> and (False : repeat True) -- Infinite list [False,True,True,True,True,True,True... False  >>> and (repeat True) * Hangs forever *  or :: [Bool] -> Bool Source # or returns the disjunction of a Boolean list. For the result to be False, the list must be finite; True, however, results from a True value at a finite index of a finite or infinite list. #### Examples Expand >>> or [] False  >>> or [True] True  >>> or [False] False  >>> or [True, True, False] True  >>> or (True : repeat False) -- Infinite list [True,False,False,False,False,False,False... True  >>> or (repeat False) * Hangs forever *  any :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> Bool Source # Applied to a predicate and a list, any determines if any element of the list satisfies the predicate. For the result to be False, the list must be finite; True, however, results from a True value for the predicate applied to an element at a finite index of a finite or infinite list. #### Examples Expand >>> any (> 3) [] False  >>> any (> 3) [1,2] False  >>> any (> 3) [1,2,3,4,5] True  >>> any (> 3) [1..] True  >>> any (> 3) [0, -1..] * Hangs forever *  all :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> Bool Source # Applied to a predicate and a list, all determines if all elements of the list satisfy the predicate. For the result to be True, the list must be finite; False, however, results from a False value for the predicate applied to an element at a finite index of a finite or infinite list. #### Examples Expand >>> all (> 3) [] True  >>> all (> 3) [1,2] False  >>> all (> 3) [1,2,3,4,5] False  >>> all (> 3) [1..] False  >>> all (> 3) [4..] * Hangs forever *  maximumBy :: (a -> a -> Ordering) -> [a] -> a Source # The maximumBy function is the non-overloaded version of maximum, which takes a comparison function and a list and returns the greatest element of the list by the comparison function. The list must be finite and non-empty. #### Examples Expand We can use this to find the longest entry of a list: >>> maximumBy (\x y -> compare (length x) (length y)) ["Hello", "World", "!", "Longest", "bar"] "Longest"  >>> minimumBy ($$a, b) (c, d) -> compare (abs (a - b)) (abs (c - d))) [(10, 15), (1, 2), (3, 5)] (10, 15)  minimumBy :: (a -> a -> Ordering) -> [a] -> a Source # The minimumBy function is the non-overloaded version of minimum, which takes a comparison function and a list and returns the least element of the list by the comparison function. The list must be finite and non-empty. #### Examples Expand We can use this to find the shortest entry of a list: >>> minimumBy (\x y -> compare (length x) (length y)) ["Hello", "World", "!", "Longest", "bar"] "!"  >>> minimumBy (\(a, b) (c, d) -> compare (abs (a - b)) (abs (c - d))) [(10, 15), (1, 2), (3, 5)] (1, 2)  notElem :: Eq a => a -> [a] -> Bool infix 4 Source # notElem is the negation of elem. #### Examples Expand >>> 3 notElem [] True  >>> 3 notElem [1,2] True  >>> 3 notElem [1,2,3,4,5] False  >>> 3 notElem [1..] False  >>> 3 notElem [4..] * Hangs forever *  find :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> Maybe a Source # The find function takes a predicate and a list and returns the first element in the list matching the predicate, or Nothing if there is no such element. For the result to be Nothing, the list must be finite. #### Examples Expand >>> find (> 4) [1..] Just 5  >>> find (< 0) [1..10] Nothing  >>> find ('a' elem) ["john", "marcus", "paul"] Just "marcus"  foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> [a] -> b Source # foldr, applied to a binary operator, a starting value (typically the right-identity of the operator), and a list, reduces the list using the binary operator, from right to left: foldr f z [x1, x2, ..., xn] == x1 f (x2 f ... (xn f z)...) foldr1 :: HasCallStack => (a -> a -> a) -> [a] -> a Source # foldr1 is a variant of foldr that has no starting value argument, and thus must be applied to non-empty lists. Note that unlike foldr, the accumulated value must be of the same type as the list elements. >>> foldr1 (+) [1..4] 10 >>> foldr1 (+) [] *** Exception: Prelude.foldr1: empty list >>> foldr1 (-) [1..4] -2 >>> foldr1 (&&) [True, False, True, True] False >>> foldr1 (||) [False, False, True, True] True >>> force foldr1 (+) [1..] *** Exception: stack overflow  foldl1 :: HasCallStack => (a -> a -> a) -> [a] -> a Source # foldl1 is a variant of foldl that has no starting value argument, and thus must be applied to non-empty lists. Note that unlike foldl, the accumulated value must be of the same type as the list elements. >>> foldl1 (+) [1..4] 10 >>> foldl1 (+) [] *** Exception: Prelude.foldl1: empty list >>> foldl1 (-) [1..4] -8 >>> foldl1 (&&) [True, False, True, True] False >>> foldl1 (||) [False, False, True, True] True >>> foldl1 (+) [1..] * Hangs forever *  foldl1' :: HasCallStack => (a -> a -> a) -> [a] -> a Source # A strict version of foldl1. foldl :: forall a b. (b -> a -> b) -> b -> [a] -> b Source # foldl, applied to a binary operator, a starting value (typically the left-identity of the operator), and a list, reduces the list using the binary operator, from left to right: foldl f z [x1, x2, ..., xn] == (...((z f x1) f x2) f...) f xn The list must be finite. >>> foldl (+) 0 [1..4] 10 >>> foldl (+) 42 [] 42 >>> foldl (-) 100 [1..4] 90 >>> foldl (\reversedString nextChar -> nextChar : reversedString) "foo" ['a', 'b', 'c', 'd'] "dcbafoo" >>> foldl (+) 0 [1..] * Hangs forever *  foldl' :: forall a b. (b -> a -> b) -> b -> [a] -> b Source # A strict version of foldl. (++) :: [a] -> [a] -> [a] infixr 5 Source # (++) appends two lists, i.e., [x1, ..., xm] ++ [y1, ..., yn] == [x1, ..., xm, y1, ..., yn] [x1, ..., xm] ++ [y1, ...] == [x1, ..., xm, y1, ...] If the first list is not finite, the result is the first list. #### Performance considerations Expand This function takes linear time in the number of elements of the first list. Thus it is better to associate repeated applications of (++) to the right (which is the default behaviour): xs ++ (ys ++ zs) or simply xs ++ ys ++ zs, but not (xs ++ ys) ++ zs. For the same reason concat = foldr (++) [] has linear performance, while foldl (++) [] is prone to quadratic slowdown #### Examples Expand >>> [1, 2, 3] ++ [4, 5, 6] [1,2,3,4,5,6]  >>> [] ++ [1, 2, 3] [1,2,3]  >>> [3, 2, 1] ++ [] [3,2,1]  last :: HasCallStack => [a] -> a Source # \(\mathcal{O}(n)$$. Extract the last element of a list, which must be finite and non-empty. WARNING: This function is partial. Consider using unsnoc instead. #### Examples Expand >>> last [1, 2, 3] 3  >>> last [1..] * Hangs forever *  >>> last [] *** Exception: Prelude.last: empty list  tail :: HasCallStack => [a] -> [a] Source # Warning: This is a partial function, it throws an error on empty lists. Replace it with drop 1, or use pattern matching or Data.List.uncons instead. Consider refactoring to use Data.List.NonEmpty. $$\mathcal{O}(1)$$. Extract the elements after the head of a list, which must be non-empty. #### Examples Expand >>> tail [1, 2, 3] [2,3]  >>> tail [1] []  >>> tail [] *** Exception: Prelude.tail: empty list  init :: HasCallStack => [a] -> [a] Source # $$\mathcal{O}(n)$$. Return all the elements of a list except the last one. The list must be non-empty. WARNING: This function is partial. Consider using unsnoc instead. #### Examples Expand >>> init [1, 2, 3] [1,2]  >>> init [1] []  >>> init [] *** Exception: Prelude.init: empty list  uncons :: [a] -> Maybe (a, [a]) Source # $$\mathcal{O}(1)$$. Decompose a list into its head and tail. • If the list is empty, returns Nothing. • If the list is non-empty, returns Just (x, xs), where x is the head of the list and xs its tail. #### Examples Expand >>> uncons [] Nothing  >>> uncons [1] Just (1,[])  >>> uncons [1, 2, 3] Just (1,[2,3])  Since: base-4.8.0.0 unsnoc :: [a] -> Maybe ([a], a) Source # $$\mathcal{O}(n)$$. Decompose a list into init and last. • If the list is empty, returns Nothing. • If the list is non-empty, returns Just (xs, x), where xs is the initial part of the list and x is its last element. unsnoc is dual to uncons: for a finite list xs unsnoc xs = ($$hd, tl) -> (reverse tl, hd)) <> uncons (reverse xs) #### Examples Expand >>> unsnoc [] Nothing  >>> unsnoc [1] Just ([],1)  >>> unsnoc [1, 2, 3] Just ([1,2],3)  #### Laziness Expand >>> fst <> unsnoc [undefined] Just []  >>> head . fst <> unsnoc (1 : undefined) Just *** Exception: Prelude.undefined  >>> head . fst <> unsnoc (1 : 2 : undefined) Just 1  Since: base-4.19.0.0 singleton :: a -> [a] Source # Construct a list from a single element. #### Examples Expand >>> singleton True [True]  >>> singleton [1, 2, 3] [[1,2,3]]  >>> singleton 'c' "c"  Since: base-4.15.0.0 null :: [a] -> Bool Source # \(\mathcal{O}(1)$$. Test whether a list is empty. >>> null [] True >>> null [1] False >>> null [1..] False  length :: [a] -> Int Source # $$\mathcal{O}(n)$$. length returns the length of a finite list as an Int. It is an instance of the more general genericLength, the result type of which may be any kind of number. >>> length [] 0 >>> length ['a', 'b', 'c'] 3 >>> length [1..] * Hangs forever *  map :: (a -> b) -> [a] -> [b] Source # $$\mathcal{O}(n)$$. map f xs is the list obtained by applying f to each element of xs, i.e., map f [x1, x2, ..., xn] == [f x1, f x2, ..., f xn] map f [x1, x2, ...] == [f x1, f x2, ...] this means that map id == id #### Examples Expand >>> map (+1) [1, 2, 3] [2,3,4]  >>> map id [1, 2, 3] [1,2,3]  >>> map (\n -> 3 * n + 1) [1, 2, 3] [4,7,10]  reverse :: [a] -> [a] Source # $$\mathcal{O}(n)$$. reverse xs returns the elements of xs in reverse order. xs must be finite. #### Laziness Expand reverse is lazy in its elements. >>> head (reverse [undefined, 1]) 1  >>> reverse (1 : 2 : undefined) *** Exception: Prelude.undefined  #### Examples Expand >>> reverse [] []  >>> reverse [42] [42]  >>> reverse [2,5,7] [7,5,2]  >>> reverse [1..] * Hangs forever *  intersperse :: a -> [a] -> [a] Source # $$\mathcal{O}(n)$$. The intersperse function takes an element and a list and intersperses' that element between the elements of the list. #### Laziness Expand intersperse has the following properties >>> take 1 (intersperse undefined ('a' : undefined)) "a"  >>> take 2 (intersperse ',' ('a' : undefined)) "a*** Exception: Prelude.undefined  #### Examples Expand >>> intersperse ',' "abcde" "a,b,c,d,e"  >>> intersperse 1 [3, 4, 5] [3,1,4,1,5]  intercalate :: [a] -> [[a]] -> [a] Source # intercalate xs xss is equivalent to (concat (intersperse xs xss)). It inserts the list xs in between the lists in xss and concatenates the result. #### Laziness Expand intercalate has the following properties: >>> take 5 (intercalate undefined ("Lorem" : undefined)) "Lorem"  >>> take 6 (intercalate ", " ("Lorem" : undefined)) "Lorem*** Exception: Prelude.undefined  #### Examples Expand >>> intercalate ", " ["Lorem", "ipsum", "dolor"] "Lorem, ipsum, dolor"  >>> intercalate [0, 1] [[2, 3], [4, 5, 6], []] [2,3,0,1,4,5,6,0,1]  >>> intercalate [1, 2, 3] [[], []] [1,2,3]  transpose :: [[a]] -> [[a]] Source # The transpose function transposes the rows and columns of its argument. #### Laziness Expand transpose is lazy in its elements >>> take 1 (transpose ['a' : undefined, 'b' : undefined]) ["ab"]  #### Examples Expand >>> transpose [[1,2,3],[4,5,6]] [[1,4],[2,5],[3,6]]  If some of the rows are shorter than the following rows, their elements are skipped: >>> transpose [[10,11],[20],[],[30,31,32]] [[10,20,30],[11,31],[32]]  For this reason the outer list must be finite; otherwise transpose hangs: >>> transpose (repeat []) * Hangs forever *  subsequences :: [a] -> [[a]] Source # The subsequences function returns the list of all subsequences of the argument. #### Laziness Expand subsequences does not look ahead unless it must: >>> take 1 (subsequences undefined) [[]] >>> take 2 (subsequences ('a' : undefined)) ["","a"]  #### Examples Expand >>> subsequences "abc" ["","a","b","ab","c","ac","bc","abc"]  This function is productive on infinite inputs: >>> take 8$ subsequences ['a'..]
["","a","b","ab","c","ac","bc","abc"]


permutations :: [a] -> [[a]] Source #

The permutations function returns the list of all permutations of the argument.

Note that the order of permutations is not lexicographic. It satisfies the following property:

map (take n) (take (product [1..n]) (permutations ([1..n] ++ undefined))) == permutations [1..n]

#### Laziness

Expand

The permutations function is maximally lazy: for each n, the value of permutations xs starts with those permutations that permute take n xs and keep drop n xs.

#### Examples

Expand
>>> permutations "abc"
["abc","bac","cba","bca","cab","acb"]

>>> permutations [1, 2]
[[1,2],[2,1]]

>>> permutations []
[[]]


This function is productive on infinite inputs:

>>> take 6 $map (take 3)$ permutations ['a'..]
["abc","bac","cba","bca","cab","acb"]


sum :: Num a => [a] -> a Source #

The sum function computes the sum of a finite list of numbers.

>>> sum []
0
>>> sum [42]
42
>>> sum [1..10]
55
>>> sum [4.1, 2.0, 1.7]
7.8
>>> sum [1..]
* Hangs forever *


product :: Num a => [a] -> a Source #

The product function computes the product of a finite list of numbers.

>>> product []
1
>>> product [42]
42
>>> product [1..10]
3628800
>>> product [4.1, 2.0, 1.7]
13.939999999999998
>>> product [1..]
* Hangs forever *


maximum :: (Ord a, HasCallStack) => [a] -> a Source #

maximum returns the maximum value from a list, which must be non-empty, finite, and of an ordered type. It is a special case of maximumBy, which allows the programmer to supply their own comparison function.

>>> maximum []
*** Exception: Prelude.maximum: empty list
>>> maximum [42]
42
>>> maximum [55, -12, 7, 0, -89]
55
>>> maximum [1..]
* Hangs forever *


minimum :: (Ord a, HasCallStack) => [a] -> a Source #

minimum returns the minimum value from a list, which must be non-empty, finite, and of an ordered type. It is a special case of minimumBy, which allows the programmer to supply their own comparison function.

>>> minimum []
*** Exception: Prelude.minimum: empty list
>>> minimum [42]
42
>>> minimum [55, -12, 7, 0, -89]
-89
>>> minimum [1..]
* Hangs forever *


scanl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> [a] -> [b] Source #

$$\mathcal{O}(n)$$. scanl is similar to foldl, but returns a list of successive reduced values from the left:

scanl f z [x1, x2, ...] == [z, z f x1, (z f x1) f x2, ...]

Note that

last (scanl f z xs) == foldl f z xs

#### Examples

Expand
>>> scanl (+) 0 [1..4]
[0,1,3,6,10]

>>> scanl (+) 42 []
[42]

>>> scanl (-) 100 [1..4]
[100,99,97,94,90]

>>> scanl (\reversedString nextChar -> nextChar : reversedString) "foo" ['a', 'b', 'c', 'd']
["foo","afoo","bafoo","cbafoo","dcbafoo"]

>>> take 10 (scanl (+) 0 [1..])
[0,1,3,6,10,15,21,28,36,45]

>>> take 1 (scanl undefined 'a' undefined)
"a"


scanl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> [a] -> [b] Source #

$$\mathcal{O}(n)$$. A strict version of scanl.

scanl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> [a] -> [a] Source #

$$\mathcal{O}(n)$$. scanl1 is a variant of scanl that has no starting value argument:

scanl1 f [x1, x2, ...] == [x1, x1 f x2, ...]

#### Examples

Expand
>>> scanl1 (+) [1..4]
[1,3,6,10]

>>> scanl1 (+) []
[]

>>> scanl1 (-) [1..4]
[1,-1,-4,-8]

>>> scanl1 (&&) [True, False, True, True]
[True,False,False,False]

>>> scanl1 (||) [False, False, True, True]
[False,False,True,True]

>>> take 10 (scanl1 (+) [1..])
[1,3,6,10,15,21,28,36,45,55]

>>> take 1 (scanl1 undefined ('a' : undefined))
"a"


scanr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> [a] -> [b] Source #

$$\mathcal{O}(n)$$. scanr is the right-to-left dual of scanl. Note that the order of parameters on the accumulating function are reversed compared to scanl. Also note that

head (scanr f z xs) == foldr f z xs.

#### Examples

Expand
>>> scanr (+) 0 [1..4]
[10,9,7,4,0]

>>> scanr (+) 42 []
[42]

>>> scanr (-) 100 [1..4]
[98,-97,99,-96,100]

>>> scanr (\nextChar reversedString -> nextChar : reversedString) "foo" ['a', 'b', 'c', 'd']
["abcdfoo","bcdfoo","cdfoo","dfoo","foo"]

>>> force $scanr (+) 0 [1..] *** Exception: stack overflow  scanr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> [a] -> [a] Source # $$\mathcal{O}(n)$$. scanr1 is a variant of scanr that has no starting value argument. #### Examples Expand >>> scanr1 (+) [1..4] [10,9,7,4]  >>> scanr1 (+) [] []  >>> scanr1 (-) [1..4] [-2,3,-1,4]  >>> scanr1 (&&) [True, False, True, True] [False,False,True,True]  >>> scanr1 (||) [True, True, False, False] [True,True,False,False]  >>> force$ scanr1 (+) [1..]
*** Exception: stack overflow


mapAccumL :: (acc -> x -> (acc, y)) -> acc -> [x] -> (acc, [y]) Source #

The mapAccumL function behaves like a combination of map and foldl; it applies a function to each element of a list, passing an accumulating parameter from left to right, and returning a final value of this accumulator together with the new list.

mapAccumL does not force accumulator if it is unused:

>>> take 1 (snd (mapAccumL (\_ x -> (undefined, x)) undefined ('a' : undefined)))
"a"


mapAccumR :: (acc -> x -> (acc, y)) -> acc -> [x] -> (acc, [y]) Source #

The mapAccumR function behaves like a combination of map and foldr; it applies a function to each element of a list, passing an accumulating parameter from right to left, and returning a final value of this accumulator together with the new list.

iterate :: (a -> a) -> a -> [a] Source #

iterate f x returns an infinite list of repeated applications of f to x:

iterate f x == [x, f x, f (f x), ...]

#### Laziness

Expand

Note that iterate is lazy, potentially leading to thunk build-up if the consumer doesn't force each iterate. See iterate' for a strict variant of this function.

>>> take 1 $iterate undefined 42 [42]  #### Examples Expand >>> take 10$ iterate not True
[True,False,True,False,True,False,True,False,True,False]

>>> take 10 $iterate (+3) 42 [42,45,48,51,54,57,60,63,66,69]  iterate id == repeat: >>> take 10$ iterate id 1
[1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1]


iterate' :: (a -> a) -> a -> [a] Source #

iterate' is the strict version of iterate.

It forces the result of each application of the function to weak head normal form (WHNF) before proceeding.

>>> take 1 $iterate' undefined 42 *** Exception: Prelude.undefined  replicate :: Int -> a -> [a] Source # replicate n x is a list of length n with x the value of every element. It is an instance of the more general genericReplicate, in which n may be of any integral type. #### Examples Expand >>> replicate 0 True []  >>> replicate (-1) True []  >>> replicate 4 True [True,True,True,True]  cycle :: HasCallStack => [a] -> [a] Source # cycle ties a finite list into a circular one, or equivalently, the infinite repetition of the original list. It is the identity on infinite lists. #### Examples Expand >>> cycle [] *** Exception: Prelude.cycle: empty list  >>> take 10 (cycle [42]) [42,42,42,42,42,42,42,42,42,42]  >>> take 10 (cycle [2, 5, 7]) [2,5,7,2,5,7,2,5,7,2]  >>> take 1 (cycle (42 : undefined)) [42]  unfoldr :: (b -> Maybe (a, b)) -> b -> [a] Source # The unfoldr function is a dual' to foldr: while foldr reduces a list to a summary value, unfoldr builds a list from a seed value. The function takes the element and returns Nothing if it is done producing the list or returns Just (a,b), in which case, a is a prepended to the list and b is used as the next element in a recursive call. For example, iterate f == unfoldr (\x -> Just (x, f x)) In some cases, unfoldr can undo a foldr operation: unfoldr f' (foldr f z xs) == xs if the following holds: f' (f x y) = Just (x,y) f' z = Nothing #### Laziness Expand >>> take 1 (unfoldr (\x -> Just (x, undefined)) 'a') "a"  #### Examples Expand >>> unfoldr (\b -> if b == 0 then Nothing else Just (b, b-1)) 10 [10,9,8,7,6,5,4,3,2,1]  >>> take 10$ unfoldr ($$x, y) -> Just (x, (y, x + y))) (0, 1) [0,1,1,2,3,5,8,13,21,54]  take :: Int -> [a] -> [a] Source # take n, applied to a list xs, returns the prefix of xs of length n, or xs itself if n >= length xs. It is an instance of the more general genericTake, in which n may be of any integral type. #### Laziness Expand >>> take 0 undefined [] >>> take 2 (1 : 2 : undefined) [1,2]  #### Examples Expand >>> take 5 "Hello World!" "Hello"  >>> take 3 [1,2,3,4,5] [1,2,3]  >>> take 3 [1,2] [1,2]  >>> take 3 [] []  >>> take (-1) [1,2] []  >>> take 0 [1,2] []  splitAt :: Int -> [a] -> ([a], [a]) Source # splitAt n xs returns a tuple where first element is xs prefix of length n and second element is the remainder of the list: splitAt is an instance of the more general genericSplitAt, in which n may be of any integral type. #### Laziness Expand It is equivalent to (take n xs, drop n xs) unless n is _|_: splitAt _|_ xs = _|_, not (_|_, _|_)). The first component of the tuple is produced lazily: >>> fst (splitAt 0 undefined) []  >>> take 1 (fst (splitAt 10 (1 : undefined))) [1]  #### Examples Expand >>> splitAt 6 "Hello World!" ("Hello ","World!")  >>> splitAt 3 [1,2,3,4,5] ([1,2,3],[4,5])  >>> splitAt 1 [1,2,3] ([1],[2,3])  >>> splitAt 3 [1,2,3] ([1,2,3],[])  >>> splitAt 4 [1,2,3] ([1,2,3],[])  >>> splitAt 0 [1,2,3] ([],[1,2,3])  >>> splitAt (-1) [1,2,3] ([],[1,2,3])  takeWhile :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [a] Source # takeWhile, applied to a predicate p and a list xs, returns the longest prefix (possibly empty) of xs of elements that satisfy p. #### Laziness Expand >>> takeWhile (const False) undefined *** Exception: Prelude.undefined  >>> takeWhile (const False) (undefined : undefined) []  >>> take 1 (takeWhile (const True) (1 : undefined)) [1]  #### Examples Expand >>> takeWhile (< 3) [1,2,3,4,1,2,3,4] [1,2]  >>> takeWhile (< 9) [1,2,3] [1,2,3]  >>> takeWhile (< 0) [1,2,3] []  dropWhile :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [a] Source # dropWhile p xs returns the suffix remaining after takeWhile p xs. #### Examples Expand >>> dropWhile (< 3) [1,2,3,4,5,1,2,3] [3,4,5,1,2,3]  >>> dropWhile (< 9) [1,2,3] []  >>> dropWhile (< 0) [1,2,3] [1,2,3]  dropWhileEnd :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [a] Source # The dropWhileEnd function drops the largest suffix of a list in which the given predicate holds for all elements. #### Laziness Expand This function is lazy in spine, but strict in elements, which makes it different from reverse . dropWhile p . reverse, which is strict in spine, but lazy in elements. For instance: >>> take 1 (dropWhileEnd (< 0) (1 : undefined)) [1]  >>> take 1 (reverse  dropWhile (< 0)  reverse (1 : undefined)) *** Exception: Prelude.undefined  but on the other hand >>> last (dropWhileEnd (< 0) [undefined, 1]) *** Exception: Prelude.undefined  >>> last (reverse  dropWhile (< 0)  reverse [undefined, 1]) 1  #### Examples Expand >>> dropWhileEnd isSpace "foo\n" "foo"  >>> dropWhileEnd isSpace "foo bar" "foo bar" >>> dropWhileEnd (> 10) [1..20] [1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10]  Since: base-4.5.0.0 span :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> ([a], [a]) Source # span, applied to a predicate p and a list xs, returns a tuple where first element is the longest prefix (possibly empty) of xs of elements that satisfy p and second element is the remainder of the list: span p xs is equivalent to (takeWhile p xs, dropWhile p xs), even if p is _|_. #### Laziness Expand >>> span undefined [] ([],[]) >>> fst (span (const False) undefined) *** Exception: Prelude.undefined >>> fst (span (const False) (undefined : undefined)) [] >>> take 1 (fst (span (const True) (1 : undefined))) [1]  span produces the first component of the tuple lazily: >>> take 10 (fst (span (const True) [1..])) [1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10]  #### Examples Expand >>> span (< 3) [1,2,3,4,1,2,3,4] ([1,2],[3,4,1,2,3,4])  >>> span (< 9) [1,2,3] ([1,2,3],[])  >>> span (< 0) [1,2,3] ([],[1,2,3])  break :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> ([a], [a]) Source # break, applied to a predicate p and a list xs, returns a tuple where first element is longest prefix (possibly empty) of xs of elements that do not satisfy p and second element is the remainder of the list: break p is equivalent to span (not . p) and consequently to (takeWhile (not . p) xs, dropWhile (not . p) xs), even if p is _|_. #### Laziness Expand >>> break undefined [] ([],[])  >>> fst (break (const True) undefined) *** Exception: Prelude.undefined  >>> fst (break (const True) (undefined : undefined)) []  >>> take 1 (fst (break (const False) (1 : undefined))) [1]  break produces the first component of the tuple lazily: >>> take 10 (fst (break (const False) [1..])) [1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10]  #### Examples Expand >>> break (> 3) [1,2,3,4,1,2,3,4] ([1,2,3],[4,1,2,3,4])  >>> break (< 9) [1,2,3] ([],[1,2,3])  >>> break (> 9) [1,2,3] ([1,2,3],[])  stripPrefix :: Eq a => [a] -> [a] -> Maybe [a] Source # \(\mathcal{O}(\min(m,n))$$. The stripPrefix function drops the given prefix from a list. It returns Nothing if the list did not start with the prefix given, or Just the list after the prefix, if it does.

##### Examples
Expand
>>> stripPrefix "foo" "foobar"
Just "bar"

>>> stripPrefix "foo" "foo"
Just ""

>>> stripPrefix "foo" "barfoo"
Nothing

>>> stripPrefix "foo" "barfoobaz"
Nothing


inits :: [a] -> [[a]] Source #

The inits function returns all initial segments of the argument, shortest first.

inits is semantically equivalent to map reverse . scanl (flip (:)) [], but under the hood uses a queue to amortize costs of reverse.

#### Laziness

Expand

Note that inits has the following strictness property: inits (xs ++ _|_) = inits xs ++ _|_

In particular, inits _|_ = [] : _|_

#### Examples

Expand
>>> inits "abc"
["","a","ab","abc"]

>>> inits []
[[]]


inits is productive on infinite lists:

>>> take 5 $inits [1..] [[],[1],[1,2],[1,2,3],[1,2,3,4]]  tails :: [a] -> [[a]] Source # $$\mathcal{O}(n)$$. The tails function returns all final segments of the argument, longest first. #### Laziness Expand Note that tails has the following strictness property: tails _|_ = _|_ : _|_ >>> tails undefined [*** Exception: Prelude.undefined  >>> drop 1 (tails [undefined, 1, 2]) [[1, 2], [2], []]  #### Examples Expand >>> tails "abc" ["abc","bc","c",""]  >>> tails [1, 2, 3] [[1,2,3],[2,3],[3],[]]  >>> tails [] [[]]  isPrefixOf :: Eq a => [a] -> [a] -> Bool Source # $$\mathcal{O}(\min(m,n))$$. The isPrefixOf function takes two lists and returns True iff the first list is a prefix of the second. #### Examples Expand >>> "Hello" isPrefixOf "Hello World!" True  >>> "Hello" isPrefixOf "Wello Horld!" False  For the result to be True, the first list must be finite; False, however, results from any mismatch: >>> [0..] isPrefixOf [1..] False  >>> [0..] isPrefixOf [0..99] False  >>> [0..99] isPrefixOf [0..] True  >>> [0..] isPrefixOf [0..] * Hangs forever *  isPrefixOf shortcuts when the first argument is empty: >>> isPrefixOf [] undefined True  isSuffixOf :: Eq a => [a] -> [a] -> Bool Source # The isSuffixOf function takes two lists and returns True iff the first list is a suffix of the second. #### Examples Expand >>> "ld!" isSuffixOf "Hello World!" True  >>> "World" isSuffixOf "Hello World!" False  The second list must be finite; however the first list may be infinite: >>> [0..] isSuffixOf [0..99] False  >>> [0..99] isSuffixOf [0..] * Hangs forever *  isInfixOf :: Eq a => [a] -> [a] -> Bool Source # The isInfixOf function takes two lists and returns True iff the first list is contained, wholly and intact, anywhere within the second. #### Examples Expand >>> isInfixOf "Haskell" "I really like Haskell." True  >>> isInfixOf "Ial" "I really like Haskell." False  For the result to be True, the first list must be finite; for the result to be False, the second list must be finite: >>> [20..50] isInfixOf [0..] True  >>> [0..] isInfixOf [20..50] False  >>> [0..] isInfixOf [0..] * Hangs forever *  elem :: Eq a => a -> [a] -> Bool infix 4 Source # elem is the list membership predicate, usually written in infix form, e.g., x elem xs. For the result to be False, the list must be finite; True, however, results from an element equal to x found at a finite index of a finite or infinite list. #### Examples Expand >>> 3 elem [] False  >>> 3 elem [1,2] False  >>> 3 elem [1,2,3,4,5] True  >>> 3 elem [1..] True  >>> 3 elem [4..] * Hangs forever *  lookup :: Eq a => a -> [(a, b)] -> Maybe b Source # $$\mathcal{O}(n)$$. lookup key assocs looks up a key in an association list. For the result to be Nothing, the list must be finite. #### Examples Expand >>> lookup 2 [] Nothing  >>> lookup 2 [(1, "first")] Nothing  >>> lookup 2 [(1, "first"), (2, "second"), (3, "third")] Just "second"  filter :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [a] Source # $$\mathcal{O}(n)$$. filter, applied to a predicate and a list, returns the list of those elements that satisfy the predicate; i.e., filter p xs = [ x | x <- xs, p x] #### Examples Expand >>> filter odd [1, 2, 3] [1,3]  >>> filter (\l -> length l > 3) ["Hello", ", ", "World", "!"] ["Hello","World"]  >>> filter (/= 3) [1, 2, 3, 4, 3, 2, 1] [1,2,4,2,1]  partition :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> ([a], [a]) Source # The partition function takes a predicate and a list, and returns the pair of lists of elements which do and do not satisfy the predicate, respectively; i.e., partition p xs == (filter p xs, filter (not . p) xs) #### Examples Expand >>> partition (elem "aeiou") "Hello World!" ("eoo","Hll Wrld!")  >>> partition even [1..10] ([2,4,6,8,10],[1,3,5,7,9])  >>> partition (< 5) [1..10] ([1,2,3,4],[5,6,7,8,9,10])  (!?) :: [a] -> Int -> Maybe a infixl 9 Source # List index (subscript) operator, starting from 0. Returns Nothing if the index is out of bounds This is the total variant of the partial !! operator. WARNING: This function takes linear time in the index. #### Examples Expand >>> ['a', 'b', 'c'] !? 0 Just 'a'  >>> ['a', 'b', 'c'] !? 2 Just 'c'  >>> ['a', 'b', 'c'] !? 3 Nothing  >>> ['a', 'b', 'c'] !? (-1) Nothing  (!!) :: HasCallStack => [a] -> Int -> a infixl 9 Source # List index (subscript) operator, starting from 0. It is an instance of the more general genericIndex, which takes an index of any integral type. WARNING: This function is partial, and should only be used if you are sure that the indexing will not fail. Otherwise, use !?. WARNING: This function takes linear time in the index. #### Examples Expand >>> ['a', 'b', 'c'] !! 0 'a'  >>> ['a', 'b', 'c'] !! 2 'c'  >>> ['a', 'b', 'c'] !! 3 *** Exception: Prelude.!!: index too large  >>> ['a', 'b', 'c'] !! (-1) *** Exception: Prelude.!!: negative index  elemIndex :: Eq a => a -> [a] -> Maybe Int Source # The elemIndex function returns the index of the first element in the given list which is equal (by ==) to the query element, or Nothing if there is no such element. For the result to be Nothing, the list must be finite. #### Examples Expand >>> elemIndex 4 [0..] Just 4  >>> elemIndex 'o' "haskell" Nothing  >>> elemIndex 0 [1..] * hangs forever *  elemIndices :: Eq a => a -> [a] -> [Int] Source # The elemIndices function extends elemIndex, by returning the indices of all elements equal to the query element, in ascending order. #### Examples Expand >>> elemIndices 'o' "Hello World" [4,7]  >>> elemIndices 1 [1, 2, 3, 1, 2, 3] [0,3]  findIndices :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [Int] Source # The findIndices function extends findIndex, by returning the indices of all elements satisfying the predicate, in ascending order. #### Examples Expand >>> findIndices (elem "aeiou") "Hello World!" [1,4,7]  >>> findIndices (\l -> length l > 3) ["a", "bcde", "fgh", "ijklmnop"] [1,3]  zip :: [a] -> [b] -> [(a, b)] Source # $$\mathcal{O}(\min(m,n))$$. zip takes two lists and returns a list of corresponding pairs. zip is right-lazy: >>> zip [] undefined [] >>> zip undefined [] *** Exception: Prelude.undefined ...  zip is capable of list fusion, but it is restricted to its first list argument and its resulting list. #### Examples Expand >>> zip [1, 2, 3] ['a', 'b', 'c'] [(1,'a'),(2,'b'),(3,'c')]  If one input list is shorter than the other, excess elements of the longer list are discarded, even if one of the lists is infinite: >>> zip [1] ['a', 'b'] [(1,'a')]  >>> zip [1, 2] ['a'] [(1,'a')]  >>> zip [] [1..] []  >>> zip [1..] [] []  zip3 :: [a] -> [b] -> [c] -> [(a, b, c)] Source # zip3 takes three lists and returns a list of triples, analogous to zip. It is capable of list fusion, but it is restricted to its first list argument and its resulting list. zip4 :: [a] -> [b] -> [c] -> [d] -> [(a, b, c, d)] Source # The zip4 function takes four lists and returns a list of quadruples, analogous to zip. It is capable of list fusion, but it is restricted to its first list argument and its resulting list. zip5 :: [a] -> [b] -> [c] -> [d] -> [e] -> [(a, b, c, d, e)] Source # The zip5 function takes five lists and returns a list of five-tuples, analogous to zip. It is capable of list fusion, but it is restricted to its first list argument and its resulting list. zip6 :: [a] -> [b] -> [c] -> [d] -> [e] -> [f] -> [(a, b, c, d, e, f)] Source # The zip6 function takes six lists and returns a list of six-tuples, analogous to zip. It is capable of list fusion, but it is restricted to its first list argument and its resulting list. zip7 :: [a] -> [b] -> [c] -> [d] -> [e] -> [f] -> [g] -> [(a, b, c, d, e, f, g)] Source # The zip7 function takes seven lists and returns a list of seven-tuples, analogous to zip. It is capable of list fusion, but it is restricted to its first list argument and its resulting list. zipWith3 :: (a -> b -> c -> d) -> [a] -> [b] -> [c] -> [d] Source # $$\mathcal{O}(\min(l,m,n))$$. The zipWith3 function takes a function which combines three elements, as well as three lists and returns a list of the function applied to corresponding elements, analogous to zipWith. It is capable of list fusion, but it is restricted to its first list argument and its resulting list. zipWith3 (,,) xs ys zs == zip3 xs ys zs zipWith3 f [x1,x2,x3..] [y1,y2,y3..] [z1,z2,z3..] == [f x1 y1 z1, f x2 y2 z2, f x3 y3 z3..] #### Examples Expand >>> zipWith3 (\x y z -> [x, y, z]) "123" "abc" "xyz" ["1ax","2by","3cz"]  >>> zipWith3 (\x y z -> (x * y) + z) [1, 2, 3] [4, 5, 6] [7, 8, 9] [11,18,27]  zipWith4 :: (a -> b -> c -> d -> e) -> [a] -> [b] -> [c] -> [d] -> [e] Source # The zipWith4 function takes a function which combines four elements, as well as four lists and returns a list of their point-wise combination, analogous to zipWith. It is capable of list fusion, but it is restricted to its first list argument and its resulting list. zipWith5 :: (a -> b -> c -> d -> e -> f) -> [a] -> [b] -> [c] -> [d] -> [e] -> [f] Source # The zipWith5 function takes a function which combines five elements, as well as five lists and returns a list of their point-wise combination, analogous to zipWith. It is capable of list fusion, but it is restricted to its first list argument and its resulting list. zipWith6 :: (a -> b -> c -> d -> e -> f -> g) -> [a] -> [b] -> [c] -> [d] -> [e] -> [f] -> [g] Source # The zipWith6 function takes a function which combines six elements, as well as six lists and returns a list of their point-wise combination, analogous to zipWith. It is capable of list fusion, but it is restricted to its first list argument and its resulting list. zipWith7 :: (a -> b -> c -> d -> e -> f -> g -> h) -> [a] -> [b] -> [c] -> [d] -> [e] -> [f] -> [g] -> [h] Source # The zipWith7 function takes a function which combines seven elements, as well as seven lists and returns a list of their point-wise combination, analogous to zipWith. It is capable of list fusion, but it is restricted to its first list argument and its resulting list. unzip3 :: [(a, b, c)] -> ([a], [b], [c]) Source # The unzip3 function takes a list of triples and returns three lists of the respective components, analogous to unzip. #### Examples Expand >>> unzip3 [] ([],[],[])  >>> unzip3 [(1, 'a', True), (2, 'b', False)] ([1,2],"ab",[True,False])  unzip4 :: [(a, b, c, d)] -> ([a], [b], [c], [d]) Source # The unzip4 function takes a list of quadruples and returns four lists, analogous to unzip. unzip5 :: [(a, b, c, d, e)] -> ([a], [b], [c], [d], [e]) Source # The unzip5 function takes a list of five-tuples and returns five lists, analogous to unzip. unzip6 :: [(a, b, c, d, e, f)] -> ([a], [b], [c], [d], [e], [f]) Source # The unzip6 function takes a list of six-tuples and returns six lists, analogous to unzip. unzip7 :: [(a, b, c, d, e, f, g)] -> ([a], [b], [c], [d], [e], [f], [g]) Source # The unzip7 function takes a list of seven-tuples and returns seven lists, analogous to unzip. lines :: String -> [String] Source # Splits the argument into a list of lines stripped of their terminating \n characters. The \n terminator is optional in a final non-empty line of the argument string. When the argument string is empty, or ends in a \n character, it can be recovered by passing the result of lines to the unlines function. Otherwise, unlines appends the missing terminating \n. This makes unlines . lines idempotent: (unlines . lines) . (unlines . lines) = (unlines . lines) #### Examples Expand >>> lines "" -- empty input contains no lines []  >>> lines "\n" -- single empty line [""]  >>> lines "one" -- single unterminated line ["one"]  >>> lines "one\n" -- single non-empty line ["one"]  >>> lines "one\n\n" -- second line is empty ["one",""]  >>> lines "one\ntwo" -- second line is unterminated ["one","two"]  >>> lines "one\ntwo\n" -- two non-empty lines ["one","two"]  words :: String -> [String] Source # words breaks a string up into a list of words, which were delimited by white space (as defined by isSpace). This function trims any white spaces at the beginning and at the end. #### Examples Expand >>> words "Lorem ipsum\ndolor" ["Lorem","ipsum","dolor"]  >>> words " foo bar " ["foo","bar"]  unlines :: [String] -> String Source # Appends a \n character to each input string, then concatenates the results. Equivalent to foldMap (s -> s ++ "\n"). #### Examples Expand >>> unlines ["Hello", "World", "!"] "Hello\nWorld\n!\n"  Note that unlines . lines /= id when the input is not \n-terminated: >>> unlines . lines$ "foo\nbar"
"foo\nbar\n"


unwords :: [String] -> String Source #

unwords joins words with separating spaces (U+0020 SPACE).

unwords is neither left nor right inverse of words:

>>> words (unwords [" "])
[]
>>> unwords (words "foo\nbar")
"foo bar"


#### Examples

Expand
>>> unwords ["Lorem", "ipsum", "dolor"]
"Lorem ipsum dolor"

>>> unwords ["foo", "bar", "", "baz"]
"foo bar  baz"


nub :: Eq a => [a] -> [a] Source #

$$\mathcal{O}(n^2)$$. The nub function removes duplicate elements from a list. In particular, it keeps only the first occurrence of each element. (The name nub means essence'.) It is a special case of nubBy, which allows the programmer to supply their own equality test.

If there exists instance Ord a, it's faster to use nubOrd from the containers package (link to the latest online documentation), which takes only $$\mathcal{O}(n \log d)$$ time where d is the number of distinct elements in the list.

Another approach to speed up nub is to use map Data.List.NonEmpty.head . Data.List.NonEmpty.group . sort, which takes $$\mathcal{O}(n \log n)$$ time, requires instance Ord a and doesn't preserve the order.

#### Examples

Expand
>>> nub [1,2,3,4,3,2,1,2,4,3,5]
[1,2,3,4,5]

>>> nub "hello, world!"
"helo, wrd!"


delete :: Eq a => a -> [a] -> [a] Source #

$$\mathcal{O}(n)$$. delete x removes the first occurrence of x from its list argument.

It is a special case of deleteBy, which allows the programmer to supply their own equality test.

#### Examples

Expand
>>> delete 'a' "banana"
"bnana"

>>> delete "not" ["haskell", "is", "not", "awesome"]
["haskell","is","awesome"]


(\\) :: Eq a => [a] -> [a] -> [a] infix 5 Source #

The \\ function is list difference (non-associative). In the result of xs \\ ys, the first occurrence of each element of ys in turn (if any) has been removed from xs. Thus (xs ++ ys) \\ xs == ys.

It is a special case of deleteFirstsBy, which allows the programmer to supply their own equality test.

#### Examples

Expand
>>> "Hello World!" \\ "ell W"
"Hoorld!"


The second list must be finite, but the first may be infinite.

>>> take 5 ([0..] \\ [2..4])
[0,1,5,6,7]

>>> take 5 ([0..] \\ [2..])
* Hangs forever *


union :: Eq a => [a] -> [a] -> [a] Source #

The union function returns the list union of the two lists. It is a special case of unionBy, which allows the programmer to supply their own equality test.

#### Examples

Expand
>>> "dog" union "cow"
"dogcw"


If equal elements are present in both lists, an element from the first list will be used. If the second list contains equal elements, only the first one will be retained:

>>> import Data.Semigroup(Arg(..))
>>> union [Arg () "dog"] [Arg () "cow"]
[Arg () "dog"]
>>> union [] [Arg () "dog", Arg () "cow"]
[Arg () "dog"]


However if the first list contains duplicates, so will the result:

>>> "coot" union "duck"
"cootduk"
>>> "duck" union "coot"
"duckot"


union is productive even if both arguments are infinite.

>>> [0, 2 ..] union [1, 3 ..]
[0,2,4,6,8,10,12..


intersect :: Eq a => [a] -> [a] -> [a] Source #

The intersect function takes the list intersection of two lists. It is a special case of intersectBy, which allows the programmer to supply their own equality test.

##### Examples
Expand
>>> [1,2,3,4] intersect [2,4,6,8]
[2,4]


If equal elements are present in both lists, an element from the first list will be used, and all duplicates from the second list quashed:

>>> import Data.Semigroup
>>> intersect [Arg () "dog"] [Arg () "cow", Arg () "cat"]
[Arg () "dog"]


However if the first list contains duplicates, so will the result.

>>> "coot" intersect "heron"
"oo"
>>> "heron" intersect "coot"
"o"


If the second list is infinite, intersect either hangs or returns its first argument in full. Otherwise if the first list is infinite, intersect might be productive:

>>> intersect [100..] [0..]
[100,101,102,103...
>>> intersect [0] [1..]
* Hangs forever *
>>> intersect [1..] [0]
* Hangs forever *
>>> intersect (cycle [1..3]) [2]
[2,2,2,2...


sort :: Ord a => [a] -> [a] Source #

The sort function implements a stable sorting algorithm. It is a special case of sortBy, which allows the programmer to supply their own comparison function.

Elements are arranged from lowest to highest, keeping duplicates in the order they appeared in the input.

The argument must be finite.

#### Examples

Expand
>>> sort [1,6,4,3,2,5]
[1,2,3,4,5,6]

>>> sort "haskell"
"aehklls"

>>> import Data.Semigroup(Arg(..))
>>> sort [Arg ":)" 0, Arg ":D" 0, Arg ":)" 1, Arg ":3" 0, Arg ":D" 1]
[Arg ":)" 0,Arg ":)" 1,Arg ":3" 0,Arg ":D" 0,Arg ":D" 1]


sortOn :: Ord b => (a -> b) -> [a] -> [a] Source #

Sort a list by comparing the results of a key function applied to each element. sortOn f is equivalent to sortBy (comparing f), but has the performance advantage of only evaluating f once for each element in the input list. This is called the decorate-sort-undecorate paradigm, or Schwartzian transform.

Elements are arranged from lowest to highest, keeping duplicates in the order they appeared in the input.

The argument must be finite.

#### Examples

Expand
>>> sortOn fst [(2, "world"), (4, "!"), (1, "Hello")]
[(1,"Hello"),(2,"world"),(4,"!")]

>>> sortOn length ["jim", "creed", "pam", "michael", "dwight", "kevin"]
["jim","pam","creed","kevin","dwight","michael"]


Since: base-4.8.0.0

insert :: Ord a => a -> [a] -> [a] Source #

$$\mathcal{O}(n)$$. The insert function takes an element and a list and inserts the element into the list at the first position where it is less than or equal to the next element. In particular, if the list is sorted before the call, the result will also be sorted. It is a special case of insertBy, which allows the programmer to supply their own comparison function.

#### Examples

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>>> insert (-1) [1, 2, 3]
[-1,1,2,3]

>>> insert 'd' "abcefg"
"abcdefg"

>>> insert 4 [1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7]
[1,2,3,4,5,6,7]


nubBy :: (a -> a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [a] Source #

The nubBy function behaves just like nub, except it uses a user-supplied equality predicate instead of the overloaded (==) function.

#### Examples

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>>> nubBy (\x y -> mod x 3 == mod y 3) [1,2,4,5,6]
[1,2,6]

>>> nubBy (/=) [2, 7, 1, 8, 2, 8, 1, 8, 2, 8]
[2,2,2]

>>> nubBy (>) [1, 2, 3, 2, 1, 5, 4, 5, 3, 2]
[1,2,3,5,5]


deleteBy :: (a -> a -> Bool) -> a -> [a] -> [a] Source #

$$\mathcal{O}(n)$$. The deleteBy function behaves like delete, but takes a user-supplied equality predicate.

#### Examples

Expand
>>> deleteBy (<=) 4 [1..10]
[1,2,3,5,6,7,8,9,10]

>>> deleteBy (/=) 5 [5, 5, 4, 3, 5, 2]
[5,5,3,5,2]


deleteFirstsBy :: (a -> a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [a] -> [a] Source #

The deleteFirstsBy function takes a predicate and two lists and returns the first list with the first occurrence of each element of the second list removed. This is the non-overloaded version of (\\).

(\\) == deleteFirstsBy (==)

The second list must be finite, but the first may be infinite.

#### Examples

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>>> deleteFirstsBy (>) [1..10] [3, 4, 5]
[4,5,6,7,8,9,10]

>>> deleteFirstsBy (/=) [1..10] [1, 3, 5]
[4,5,6,7,8,9,10]


unionBy :: (a -> a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [a] -> [a] Source #

The unionBy function is the non-overloaded version of union. Both arguments may be infinite.

#### Examples

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>>> unionBy (>) [3, 4, 5] [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]
[3,4,5,4,5,6]

>>> import Data.Semigroup (Arg(..))
>>> unionBy (/=) [Arg () "Saul"] [Arg () "Kim"]
[Arg () "Saul", Arg () "Kim"]


intersectBy :: (a -> a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [a] -> [a] Source #

The intersectBy function is the non-overloaded version of intersect. It is productive for infinite arguments only if the first one is a subset of the second.

groupBy :: (a -> a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [[a]] Source #

The groupBy function is the non-overloaded version of group.

When a supplied relation is not transitive, it is important to remember that equality is checked against the first element in the group, not against the nearest neighbour:

>>> groupBy (\a b -> b - a < 5) [0..19]
[[0,1,2,3,4],[5,6,7,8,9],[10,11,12,13,14],[15,16,17,18,19]]


It's often preferable to use Data.List.NonEmpty.groupBy, which provides type-level guarantees of non-emptiness of inner lists.

#### Examples

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>>> groupBy (/=) [1, 1, 1, 2, 3, 1, 4, 4, 5]
[[1],[1],[1,2,3],[1,4,4,5]]

>>> groupBy (>) [1, 3, 5, 1, 4, 2, 6, 5, 4]
[[1],[3],[5,1,4,2],[6,5,4]]

>>> groupBy (const not) [True, False, True, False, False, False, True]
[[True,False],[True,False,False,False],[True]]


sortBy :: (a -> a -> Ordering) -> [a] -> [a] Source #

The sortBy function is the non-overloaded version of sort. The argument must be finite.

The supplied comparison relation is supposed to be reflexive and antisymmetric, otherwise, e. g., for _ _ -> GT, the ordered list simply does not exist. The relation is also expected to be transitive: if it is not then sortBy might fail to find an ordered permutation, even if it exists.

#### Examples

Expand
>>> sortBy ($$a,_) (b,_) -> compare a b) [(2, "world"), (4, "!"), (1, "Hello")] [(1,"Hello"),(2,"world"),(4,"!")]  insertBy :: (a -> a -> Ordering) -> a -> [a] -> [a] Source # \(\mathcal{O}(n)$$. The non-overloaded version of insert.

#### Examples

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>>> insertBy (\x y -> compare (length x) (length y)) [1, 2] [[1], [1, 2, 3], [1, 2, 3, 4]]
[[1],[1,2],[1,2,3],[1,2,3,4]]


genericLength :: Num i => [a] -> i Source #

$$\mathcal{O}(n)$$. The genericLength function is an overloaded version of length. In particular, instead of returning an Int, it returns any type which is an instance of Num. It is, however, less efficient than length.

#### Examples

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>>> genericLength [1, 2, 3] :: Int
3
>>> genericLength [1, 2, 3] :: Float
3.0


Users should take care to pick a return type that is wide enough to contain the full length of the list. If the width is insufficient, the overflow behaviour will depend on the (+) implementation in the selected Num instance. The following example overflows because the actual list length of 200 lies outside of the Int8 range of -128..127.

>>> genericLength [1..200] :: Int8
-56


genericTake :: Integral i => i -> [a] -> [a] Source #

The genericTake function is an overloaded version of take, which accepts any Integral value as the number of elements to take.

genericDrop :: Integral i => i -> [a] -> [a] Source #

The genericDrop function is an overloaded version of drop, which accepts any Integral value as the number of elements to drop.

genericSplitAt :: Integral i => i -> [a] -> ([a], [a]) Source #

The genericSplitAt function is an overloaded version of splitAt, which accepts any Integral value as the position at which to split.

genericIndex :: Integral i => [a] -> i -> a Source #

The genericIndex function is an overloaded version of !!, which accepts any Integral value as the index.

genericReplicate :: Integral i => i -> a -> [a] Source #

The genericReplicate function is an overloaded version of replicate, which accepts any Integral` value as the number of repetitions to make.