{-# OPTIONS_GHC -fno-warn-orphans #-}
{-# LANGUAGE BangPatterns, MagicHash, CPP, TypeFamilies #-}
{-# LANGUAGE Trustworthy #-}
{-# LANGUAGE TemplateHaskellQuotes #-}
{-# LANGUAGE LambdaCase #-}

-- |
-- Module      : Data.Text.Lazy
-- Copyright   : (c) 2009, 2010, 2012 Bryan O'Sullivan
--
-- License     : BSD-style
-- Maintainer  : bos@serpentine.com
-- Portability : GHC
--
-- A time and space-efficient implementation of Unicode text using
-- lists of packed arrays.
--
-- /Note/: Read below the synopsis for important notes on the use of
-- this module.
--
-- The representation used by this module is suitable for high
-- performance use and for streaming large quantities of data.  It
-- provides a means to manipulate a large body of text without
-- requiring that the entire content be resident in memory.
--
-- Some operations, such as 'concat', 'append', 'reverse' and 'cons',
-- have better time complexity than their "Data.Text" equivalents, due
-- to the underlying representation being a list of chunks. For other
-- operations, lazy 'Text's are usually within a few percent of strict
-- ones, but often with better heap usage if used in a streaming
-- fashion. For data larger than available memory, or if you have
-- tight memory constraints, this module will be the only option.
--
-- This module is intended to be imported @qualified@, to avoid name
-- clashes with "Prelude" functions.  eg.
--
-- > import qualified Data.Text.Lazy as L

module Data.Text.Lazy
    (
    -- * Fusion
    -- $fusion

    -- * Acceptable data
    -- $replacement

    -- * Types
      Text

    -- * Creation and elimination
    , pack
    , unpack
    , singleton
    , empty
    , fromChunks
    , toChunks
    , toStrict
    , fromStrict
    , foldrChunks
    , foldlChunks

    -- * Basic interface
    , cons
    , snoc
    , append
    , uncons
    , unsnoc
    , head
    , last
    , tail
    , init
    , null
    , length
    , compareLength

    -- * Transformations
    , map
    , intercalate
    , intersperse
    , transpose
    , reverse
    , replace

    -- ** Case conversion
    -- $case
    , toCaseFold
    , toLower
    , toUpper
    , toTitle

    -- ** Justification
    , justifyLeft
    , justifyRight
    , center

    -- * Folds
    , foldl
    , foldl'
    , foldl1
    , foldl1'
    , foldr
    , foldr1

    -- ** Special folds
    , concat
    , concatMap
    , any
    , all
    , maximum
    , minimum

    -- * Construction

    -- ** Scans
    , scanl
    , scanl1
    , scanr
    , scanr1

    -- ** Accumulating maps
    , mapAccumL
    , mapAccumR

    -- ** Generation and unfolding
    , repeat
    , replicate
    , cycle
    , iterate
    , unfoldr
    , unfoldrN

    -- * Substrings

    -- ** Breaking strings
    , take
    , takeEnd
    , drop
    , dropEnd
    , takeWhile
    , takeWhileEnd
    , dropWhile
    , dropWhileEnd
    , dropAround
    , strip
    , stripStart
    , stripEnd
    , splitAt
    , span
    , breakOn
    , breakOnEnd
    , break
    , group
    , groupBy
    , inits
    , tails

    -- ** Breaking into many substrings
    -- $split
    , splitOn
    , split
    , chunksOf
    -- , breakSubstring

    -- ** Breaking into lines and words
    , lines
    , words
    , unlines
    , unwords

    -- * Predicates
    , isPrefixOf
    , isSuffixOf
    , isInfixOf

    -- ** View patterns
    , stripPrefix
    , stripSuffix
    , commonPrefixes

    -- * Searching
    , filter
    , find
    , elem
    , breakOnAll
    , partition

    -- , findSubstring

    -- * Indexing
    , index
    , count

    -- * Zipping and unzipping
    , zip
    , zipWith

    -- -* Ordered text
    -- , sort
    ) where

import Prelude (Char, Bool(..), Maybe(..), String,
                Eq, (==), Ord(..), Ordering(..), Read(..), Show(..),
                (&&), (+), (-), (.), ($), (++),
                error, flip, fmap, fromIntegral, not, otherwise, quot)
import qualified Prelude as P
import Control.Arrow (first)
import Control.DeepSeq (NFData(..))
import Data.Bits (finiteBitSize)
import Data.Int (Int64)
import qualified Data.List as L
import Data.Char (isSpace)
import Data.Data (Data(gfoldl, toConstr, gunfold, dataTypeOf), constrIndex,
                  Constr, mkConstr, DataType, mkDataType, Fixity(Prefix))
import Data.Binary (Binary(get, put))
import Data.List.NonEmpty (NonEmpty(..))
import qualified Data.List.NonEmpty as NE
import Data.Monoid (Monoid(..))
import Data.Semigroup (Semigroup(..))
import Data.String (IsString(..))
import qualified Data.Text as T
import qualified Data.Text.Array as A
import qualified Data.Text.Internal as T
import qualified Data.Text.Internal.Fusion.Common as S
import qualified Data.Text.Unsafe as T
import qualified Data.Text.Internal.Lazy.Fusion as S
import Data.Text.Internal.Fusion.Types (PairS(..))
import Data.Text.Internal.Lazy.Fusion (stream, unstream)
import Data.Text.Internal.Lazy (Text(..), chunk, empty, foldlChunks,
                                foldrChunks, smallChunkSize, defaultChunkSize, equal)
import Data.Text.Internal (firstf, safe, text)
import Data.Text.Lazy.Encoding (decodeUtf8', encodeUtf8)
import Data.Text.Internal.Lazy.Search (indices)
import qualified GHC.CString as GHC
import qualified GHC.Exts as Exts
import GHC.Prim (Addr#)
import GHC.Stack (HasCallStack)
import qualified Language.Haskell.TH.Lib as TH
import qualified Language.Haskell.TH.Syntax as TH
import Text.Printf (PrintfArg, formatArg, formatString)

-- $fusion
--
-- Starting from @text-1.3@ fusion is no longer implicit,
-- and pipelines of transormations usually allocate intermediate 'Text' values.
-- Users, who observe significant changes to performances,
-- are encouraged to use fusion framework explicitly, employing
-- "Data.Text.Internal.Fusion" and "Data.Text.Internal.Fusion.Common".

-- $replacement
--
-- A 'Text' value is a sequence of Unicode scalar values, as defined
-- in
-- <http://www.unicode.org/versions/Unicode5.2.0/ch03.pdf#page=35 §3.9, definition D76 of the Unicode 5.2 standard >.
-- As such, a 'Text' cannot contain values in the range U+D800 to
-- U+DFFF inclusive. Haskell implementations admit all Unicode code
-- points
-- (<http://www.unicode.org/versions/Unicode5.2.0/ch03.pdf#page=13 §3.4, definition D10 >)
-- as 'Char' values, including code points from this invalid range.
-- This means that there are some 'Char' values
-- (corresponding to 'Data.Char.Surrogate' category) that are not valid
-- Unicode scalar values, and the functions in this module must handle
-- those cases.
--
-- Within this module, many functions construct a 'Text' from one or
-- more 'Char' values. Those functions will substitute 'Char' values
-- that are not valid Unicode scalar values with the replacement
-- character \"&#xfffd;\" (U+FFFD).  Functions that perform this
-- inspection and replacement are documented with the phrase
-- \"Performs replacement on invalid scalar values\". The functions replace
-- invalid scalar values, instead of dropping them, as a security
-- measure. For details, see
-- <http://unicode.org/reports/tr36/#Deletion_of_Noncharacters Unicode Technical Report 36, §3.5 >.)

-- $setup
-- >>> import Data.Text
-- >>> import qualified Data.Text as T
-- >>> :seti -XOverloadedStrings

instance Eq Text where
    (==) = equal
    {-# INLINE (==) #-}

instance Ord Text where
    compare = compareText

compareText :: Text -> Text -> Ordering
compareText Empty Empty = EQ
compareText Empty _     = LT
compareText _     Empty = GT
compareText (Chunk (T.Text arrA offA lenA) as) (Chunk (T.Text arrB offB lenB) bs) =
  A.compare arrA offA arrB offB (min lenA lenB) <> case lenA `compare` lenB of
    LT -> compareText as (Chunk (T.Text arrB (offB + lenA) (lenB - lenA)) bs)
    EQ -> compareText as bs
    GT -> compareText (Chunk (T.Text arrA (offA + lenB) (lenA - lenB)) as) bs
-- This is not a mistake: on contrary to UTF-16 (https://github.com/haskell/text/pull/208),
-- lexicographic ordering of UTF-8 encoded strings matches lexicographic ordering
-- of underlying bytearrays, no decoding is needed.

instance Show Text where
    showsPrec p ps r = showsPrec p (unpack ps) r

instance Read Text where
    readsPrec p str = [(pack x,y) | (x,y) <- readsPrec p str]

-- | @since 1.2.2.0
instance Semigroup Text where
    (<>) = append

instance Monoid Text where
    mempty  = empty
    mappend = (<>)
    mconcat = concat

instance IsString Text where
    fromString = pack

-- | @since 1.2.0.0
instance Exts.IsList Text where
    type Item Text = Char
    fromList       = pack
    toList         = unpack

instance NFData Text where
    rnf Empty        = ()
    rnf (Chunk _ ts) = rnf ts

-- | @since 1.2.1.0
instance Binary Text where
    put t = put (encodeUtf8 t)
    get   = do
      bs <- get
      case decodeUtf8' bs of
        P.Left exn -> P.fail (P.show exn)
        P.Right a -> P.return a

-- | This instance preserves data abstraction at the cost of inefficiency.
-- We omit reflection services for the sake of data abstraction.
--
-- This instance was created by copying the updated behavior of
-- @"Data.Text".@'Data.Text.Text'
instance Data Text where
  gfoldl f z txt = z pack `f` (unpack txt)
  toConstr _     = packConstr
  gunfold k z c  = case constrIndex c of
    1 -> k (z pack)
    _ -> error "Data.Text.Lazy.Text.gunfold"
  dataTypeOf _   = textDataType

-- | This instance has similar considerations to the 'Data' instance:
-- it preserves abstraction at the cost of inefficiency.
--
-- @since 1.2.4.0
instance TH.Lift Text where
  lift = TH.appE (TH.varE 'pack) . TH.stringE . unpack
#if MIN_VERSION_template_haskell(2,17,0)
  liftTyped = TH.unsafeCodeCoerce . TH.lift
#elif MIN_VERSION_template_haskell(2,16,0)
  liftTyped = TH.unsafeTExpCoerce . TH.lift
#endif

-- | @since 1.2.2.0
instance PrintfArg Text where
  formatArg txt = formatString $ unpack txt

packConstr :: Constr
packConstr = mkConstr textDataType "pack" [] Prefix

textDataType :: DataType
textDataType = mkDataType "Data.Text.Lazy.Text" [packConstr]

-- | /O(n)/ Convert a 'String' into a 'Text'.
--
-- Performs replacement on invalid scalar values.
pack ::
#if defined(ASSERTS)
  HasCallStack =>
#endif
  String -> Text
pack = unstream . S.streamList . L.map safe
{-# INLINE [1] pack #-}

-- | /O(n)/ Convert a 'Text' into a 'String'.
unpack ::
#if defined(ASSERTS)
  HasCallStack =>
#endif
  Text -> String
unpack t = S.unstreamList (stream t)
{-# INLINE [1] unpack #-}

-- | /O(n)/ Convert a literal string into a Text.
unpackCString# :: Addr# -> Text
unpackCString# addr# = unstream (S.streamCString# addr#)
{-# NOINLINE unpackCString# #-}

{-# RULES "TEXT literal" forall a.
    unstream (S.streamList (L.map safe (GHC.unpackCString# a)))
      = unpackCString# a #-}

{-# RULES "TEXT literal UTF8" forall a.
    unstream (S.streamList (L.map safe (GHC.unpackCStringUtf8# a)))
      = unpackCString# a #-}

{-# RULES "LAZY TEXT empty literal"
    unstream (S.streamList (L.map safe []))
      = Empty #-}

{-# RULES "LAZY TEXT empty literal" forall a.
    unstream (S.streamList (L.map safe [a]))
      = Chunk (T.singleton a) Empty #-}

-- | /O(1)/ Convert a character into a Text.
-- Performs replacement on invalid scalar values.
singleton :: Char -> Text
singleton c = Chunk (T.singleton c) Empty
{-# INLINE [1] singleton #-}

-- | /O(c)/ Convert a list of strict 'T.Text's into a lazy 'Text'.
fromChunks :: [T.Text] -> Text
fromChunks cs = L.foldr chunk Empty cs

-- | /O(n)/ Convert a lazy 'Text' into a list of strict 'T.Text's.
toChunks :: Text -> [T.Text]
toChunks cs = foldrChunks (:) [] cs

-- | /O(n)/ Convert a lazy 'Text' into a strict 'T.Text'.
toStrict :: Text -> T.Text
toStrict t = T.concat (toChunks t)
{-# INLINE [1] toStrict #-}

-- | /O(c)/ Convert a strict 'T.Text' into a lazy 'Text'.
fromStrict :: T.Text -> Text
fromStrict t = chunk t Empty
{-# INLINE [1] fromStrict #-}

-- -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- * Basic functions

-- | /O(1)/ Adds a character to the front of a 'Text'.
cons :: Char -> Text -> Text
cons c t = Chunk (T.singleton c) t
{-# INLINE [1] cons #-}

infixr 5 `cons`

-- | /O(n)/ Adds a character to the end of a 'Text'.  This copies the
-- entire array in the process.
snoc :: Text -> Char -> Text
snoc t c = foldrChunks Chunk (singleton c) t
{-# INLINE [1] snoc #-}

-- | /O(n\/c)/ Appends one 'Text' to another.
append :: Text -> Text -> Text
append xs ys = foldrChunks Chunk ys xs
{-# INLINE [1] append #-}

-- | /O(1)/ Returns the first character and rest of a 'Text', or
-- 'Nothing' if empty.
uncons :: Text -> Maybe (Char, Text)
uncons Empty        = Nothing
uncons (Chunk t ts) = Just (T.unsafeHead t, ts')
  where ts' | T.compareLength t 1 == EQ = ts
            | otherwise                 = Chunk (T.unsafeTail t) ts
{-# INLINE uncons #-}

-- | /O(1)/ Returns the first character of a 'Text', which must be
-- non-empty. This is a partial function, consider using 'uncons' instead.
head :: HasCallStack => Text -> Char
head t = S.head (stream t)
{-# INLINE head #-}

-- | /O(1)/ Returns all characters after the head of a 'Text', which
-- must be non-empty. This is a partial function, consider using 'uncons' instead.
tail :: HasCallStack => Text -> Text
tail (Chunk t ts) = chunk (T.tail t) ts
tail Empty        = emptyError "tail"
{-# INLINE [1] tail #-}

-- | /O(n\/c)/ Returns all but the last character of a 'Text', which must
-- be non-empty. This is a partial function, consider using 'unsnoc' instead.
init :: HasCallStack => Text -> Text
init (Chunk t0 ts0) = go t0 ts0
    where go t (Chunk t' ts) = Chunk t (go t' ts)
          go t Empty         = chunk (T.init t) Empty
init Empty = emptyError "init"
{-# INLINE [1] init #-}

-- | /O(n\/c)/ Returns the 'init' and 'last' of a 'Text', or 'Nothing' if
-- empty.
--
-- * It is no faster than using 'init' and 'last'.
--
-- @since 1.2.3.0
unsnoc :: Text -> Maybe (Text, Char)
unsnoc Empty          = Nothing
unsnoc ts@(Chunk _ _) = Just (init ts, last ts)
{-# INLINE unsnoc #-}

-- | /O(1)/ Tests whether a 'Text' is empty or not.
null :: Text -> Bool
null Empty = True
null _     = False
{-# INLINE [1] null #-}

-- | /O(1)/ Tests whether a 'Text' contains exactly one character.
isSingleton :: Text -> Bool
isSingleton = S.isSingleton . stream
{-# INLINE isSingleton #-}

-- | /O(n\/c)/ Returns the last character of a 'Text', which must be
-- non-empty. This is a partial function, consider using 'unsnoc' instead.
last :: HasCallStack => Text -> Char
last Empty        = emptyError "last"
last (Chunk t ts) = go t ts
    where go _ (Chunk t' ts') = go t' ts'
          go t' Empty         = T.last t'
{-# INLINE [1] last #-}

-- | /O(n)/ Returns the number of characters in a 'Text'.
length :: Text -> Int64
length = foldlChunks go 0
    where
        go :: Int64 -> T.Text -> Int64
        go l t = l + intToInt64 (T.length t)
{-# INLINE [1] length #-}

{-# RULES
"TEXT length/map -> length" forall f t.
    length (map f t) = length t
"TEXT length/zipWith -> length" forall f t1 t2.
    length (zipWith f t1 t2) = min (length t1) (length t2)
"TEXT length/replicate -> n" forall n t.
    length (replicate n t) = max 0 n P.* length t
"TEXT length/cons -> length+1" forall c t.
    length (cons c t) = 1 + length t
"TEXT length/intersperse -> 2*length-1" forall c t.
    length (intersperse c t) = max 0 (2 P.* length t - 1)
"TEXT length/intercalate -> n*length" forall s ts.
    length (intercalate s ts) = let lenS = length s in max 0 (P.sum (P.map (\t -> length t + lenS) ts) - lenS)
  #-}

-- | /O(n)/ Compare the count of characters in a 'Text' to a number.
--
-- This function gives the same answer as comparing against the result
-- of 'length', but can short circuit if the count of characters is
-- greater than the number, and hence be more efficient.
compareLength :: Text -> Int64 -> Ordering
compareLength t n = S.compareLengthI (stream t) n
{-# INLINE [1] compareLength #-}

-- We don't apply those otherwise appealing length-to-compareLength
-- rewrite rules here, because they can change the strictness
-- properties of code.

-- | /O(n)/ 'map' @f@ @t@ is the 'Text' obtained by applying @f@ to
-- each element of @t@. Performs replacement on
-- invalid scalar values.
map :: (Char -> Char) -> Text -> Text
map f = foldrChunks (Chunk . T.map f) Empty
{-# INLINE [1] map #-}

{-# RULES
"TEXT map/map -> map" forall f g t.
    map f (map g t) = map (f . safe . g) t
#-}

-- | /O(n)/ The 'intercalate' function takes a 'Text' and a list of
-- 'Text's and concatenates the list after interspersing the first
-- argument between each element of the list.
intercalate :: Text -> [Text] -> Text
intercalate t = concat . L.intersperse t
{-# INLINE [1] intercalate #-}

-- | /O(n)/ The 'intersperse' function takes a character and places it
-- between the characters of a 'Text'. Performs
-- replacement on invalid scalar values.
intersperse :: Char -> Text -> Text
intersperse c t = unstream (S.intersperse (safe c) (stream t))
{-# INLINE [1] intersperse #-}

-- | /O(n)/ Left-justify a string to the given length, using the
-- specified fill character on the right. Performs
-- replacement on invalid scalar values.
--
-- Examples:
--
-- > justifyLeft 7 'x' "foo"    == "fooxxxx"
-- > justifyLeft 3 'x' "foobar" == "foobar"
justifyLeft :: Int64 -> Char -> Text -> Text
justifyLeft k c t
    | len >= k  = t
    | otherwise = t `append` replicateChunk (k-len) (T.singleton c)
  where len = length t
{-# INLINE [1] justifyLeft #-}

-- | /O(n)/ Right-justify a string to the given length, using the
-- specified fill character on the left.  Performs replacement on
-- invalid scalar values.
--
-- Examples:
--
-- > justifyRight 7 'x' "bar"    == "xxxxbar"
-- > justifyRight 3 'x' "foobar" == "foobar"
justifyRight :: Int64 -> Char -> Text -> Text
justifyRight k c t
    | len >= k  = t
    | otherwise = replicateChunk (k-len) (T.singleton c) `append` t
  where len = length t
{-# INLINE justifyRight #-}

-- | /O(n)/ Center a string to the given length, using the specified
-- fill character on either side.  Performs replacement on invalid
-- scalar values.
--
-- Examples:
--
-- > center 8 'x' "HS" = "xxxHSxxx"
center :: Int64 -> Char -> Text -> Text
center k c t
    | len >= k  = t
    | otherwise = replicateChunk l (T.singleton c) `append` t `append` replicateChunk r (T.singleton c)
  where len = length t
        d   = k - len
        r   = d `quot` 2
        l   = d - r
{-# INLINE center #-}

-- | /O(n)/ The 'transpose' function transposes the rows and columns
-- of its 'Text' argument.  Note that this function uses 'pack',
-- 'unpack', and the list version of transpose, and is thus not very
-- efficient.
transpose :: [Text] -> [Text]
transpose ts = L.map (\ss -> Chunk (T.pack ss) Empty)
                     (L.transpose (L.map unpack ts))
-- TODO: make this fast

-- | /O(n)/ 'reverse' @t@ returns the elements of @t@ in reverse order.
reverse ::
#if defined(ASSERTS)
  HasCallStack =>
#endif
  Text -> Text
reverse = rev Empty
  where rev a Empty        = a
        rev a (Chunk t ts) = rev (Chunk (T.reverse t) a) ts

-- | /O(m+n)/ Replace every non-overlapping occurrence of @needle@ in
-- @haystack@ with @replacement@.
--
-- This function behaves as though it was defined as follows:
--
-- @
-- replace needle replacement haystack =
--   'intercalate' replacement ('splitOn' needle haystack)
-- @
--
-- As this suggests, each occurrence is replaced exactly once.  So if
-- @needle@ occurs in @replacement@, that occurrence will /not/ itself
-- be replaced recursively:
--
-- > replace "oo" "foo" "oo" == "foo"
--
-- In cases where several instances of @needle@ overlap, only the
-- first one will be replaced:
--
-- > replace "ofo" "bar" "ofofo" == "barfo"
--
-- In (unlikely) bad cases, this function's time complexity degrades
-- towards /O(n*m)/.
replace :: HasCallStack
        => Text
        -- ^ @needle@ to search for.  If this string is empty, an
        -- error will occur.
        -> Text
        -- ^ @replacement@ to replace @needle@ with.
        -> Text
        -- ^ @haystack@ in which to search.
        -> Text
replace s d = intercalate d . splitOn s
{-# INLINE replace #-}

-- ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- ** Case conversions (folds)

-- $case
--
-- With Unicode text, it is incorrect to use combinators like @map
-- toUpper@ to case convert each character of a string individually.
-- Instead, use the whole-string case conversion functions from this
-- module.  For correctness in different writing systems, these
-- functions may map one input character to two or three output
-- characters.

-- | /O(n)/ Convert a string to folded case.
--
-- This function is mainly useful for performing caseless (or case
-- insensitive) string comparisons.
--
-- A string @x@ is a caseless match for a string @y@ if and only if:
--
-- @toCaseFold x == toCaseFold y@
--
-- The result string may be longer than the input string, and may
-- differ from applying 'toLower' to the input string.  For instance,
-- the Armenian small ligature men now (U+FB13) is case folded to the
-- bigram men now (U+0574 U+0576), while the micro sign (U+00B5) is
-- case folded to the Greek small letter letter mu (U+03BC) instead of
-- itself.
toCaseFold :: Text -> Text
toCaseFold t = unstream (S.toCaseFold (stream t))
{-# INLINE toCaseFold #-}

-- | /O(n)/ Convert a string to lower case, using simple case
-- conversion.
--
-- The result string may be longer than the input string.  For
-- instance, the Latin capital letter I with dot above (U+0130) maps
-- to the sequence Latin small letter i (U+0069) followed by combining
-- dot above (U+0307).
toLower :: Text -> Text
toLower t = unstream (S.toLower (stream t))
{-# INLINE toLower #-}

-- | /O(n)/ Convert a string to upper case, using simple case
-- conversion.
--
-- The result string may be longer than the input string.  For
-- instance, the German eszett (U+00DF) maps to the two-letter
-- sequence SS.
toUpper :: Text -> Text
toUpper t = unstream (S.toUpper (stream t))
{-# INLINE toUpper #-}


-- | /O(n)/ Convert a string to title case, using simple case
-- conversion.
--
-- The first letter of the input is converted to title case, as is
-- every subsequent letter that immediately follows a non-letter.
-- Every letter that immediately follows another letter is converted
-- to lower case.
--
-- The result string may be longer than the input string. For example,
-- the Latin small ligature &#xfb02; (U+FB02) is converted to the
-- sequence Latin capital letter F (U+0046) followed by Latin small
-- letter l (U+006C).
--
-- /Note/: this function does not take language or culture specific
-- rules into account. For instance, in English, different style
-- guides disagree on whether the book name \"The Hill of the Red
-- Fox\" is correctly title cased&#x2014;but this function will
-- capitalize /every/ word.
--
-- @since 1.0.0.0
toTitle :: Text -> Text
toTitle t = unstream (S.toTitle (stream t))
{-# INLINE toTitle #-}

-- | /O(n)/ 'foldl', applied to a binary operator, a starting value
-- (typically the left-identity of the operator), and a 'Text',
-- reduces the 'Text' using the binary operator, from left to right.
foldl :: (a -> Char -> a) -> a -> Text -> a
foldl f z t = S.foldl f z (stream t)
{-# INLINE foldl #-}

-- | /O(n)/ A strict version of 'foldl'.
--
foldl' :: (a -> Char -> a) -> a -> Text -> a
foldl' f z t = S.foldl' f z (stream t)
{-# INLINE foldl' #-}

-- | /O(n)/ A variant of 'foldl' that has no starting value argument,
-- and thus must be applied to a non-empty 'Text'.
foldl1 :: HasCallStack => (Char -> Char -> Char) -> Text -> Char
foldl1 f t = S.foldl1 f (stream t)
{-# INLINE foldl1 #-}

-- | /O(n)/ A strict version of 'foldl1'.
foldl1' :: HasCallStack => (Char -> Char -> Char) -> Text -> Char
foldl1' f t = S.foldl1' f (stream t)
{-# INLINE foldl1' #-}

-- | /O(n)/ 'foldr', applied to a binary operator, a starting value
-- (typically the right-identity of the operator), and a 'Text',
-- reduces the 'Text' using the binary operator, from right to left.
foldr :: (Char -> a -> a) -> a -> Text -> a
foldr f z t = S.foldr f z (stream t)
{-# INLINE foldr #-}

-- | /O(n)/ A variant of 'foldr' that has no starting value argument,
-- and thus must be applied to a non-empty 'Text'.
foldr1 :: HasCallStack => (Char -> Char -> Char) -> Text -> Char
foldr1 f t = S.foldr1 f (stream t)
{-# INLINE foldr1 #-}

-- | /O(n)/ Concatenate a list of 'Text's.
concat :: [Text] -> Text
concat []                    = Empty
concat (Empty : css)         = concat css
concat (Chunk c Empty : css) = Chunk c (concat css)
concat (Chunk c cs : css)    = Chunk c (concat (cs : css))
{-# INLINE concat #-}

-- | /O(n)/ Map a function over a 'Text' that results in a 'Text', and
-- concatenate the results.
concatMap :: (Char -> Text) -> Text -> Text
concatMap f = concat . foldr ((:) . f) []
{-# INLINE concatMap #-}

-- | /O(n)/ 'any' @p@ @t@ determines whether any character in the
-- 'Text' @t@ satisfies the predicate @p@.
any :: (Char -> Bool) -> Text -> Bool
any p t = S.any p (stream t)
{-# INLINE any #-}

-- | /O(n)/ 'all' @p@ @t@ determines whether all characters in the
-- 'Text' @t@ satisfy the predicate @p@.
all :: (Char -> Bool) -> Text -> Bool
all p t = S.all p (stream t)
{-# INLINE all #-}

-- | /O(n)/ 'maximum' returns the maximum value from a 'Text', which
-- must be non-empty.
maximum :: HasCallStack => Text -> Char
maximum t = S.maximum (stream t)
{-# INLINE maximum #-}

-- | /O(n)/ 'minimum' returns the minimum value from a 'Text', which
-- must be non-empty.
minimum :: HasCallStack => Text -> Char
minimum t = S.minimum (stream t)
{-# INLINE minimum #-}

-- | /O(n)/ 'scanl' is similar to 'foldl', but returns a list of
-- successive reduced values from the left.
-- Performs replacement on invalid scalar values.
--
-- > scanl f z [x1, x2, ...] == [z, z `f` x1, (z `f` x1) `f` x2, ...]
--
-- Note that
--
-- > last (scanl f z xs) == foldl f z xs.
scanl :: (Char -> Char -> Char) -> Char -> Text -> Text
scanl f z t = unstream (S.scanl g z (stream t))
    where g a b = safe (f a b)
{-# INLINE scanl #-}

-- | /O(n)/ 'scanl1' is a variant of 'scanl' that has no starting
-- value argument.  Performs replacement on invalid scalar values.
--
-- > scanl1 f [x1, x2, ...] == [x1, x1 `f` x2, ...]
scanl1 :: (Char -> Char -> Char) -> Text -> Text
scanl1 f t0 = case uncons t0 of
                Nothing -> empty
                Just (t,ts) -> scanl f t ts
{-# INLINE scanl1 #-}

-- | /O(n)/ 'scanr' is the right-to-left dual of 'scanl'.  Performs
-- replacement on invalid scalar values.
--
-- > scanr f v == reverse . scanl (flip f) v . reverse
scanr :: (Char -> Char -> Char) -> Char -> Text -> Text
scanr f v = reverse . scanl g v . reverse
    where g a b = safe (f b a)

-- | /O(n)/ 'scanr1' is a variant of 'scanr' that has no starting
-- value argument.  Performs replacement on invalid scalar values.
scanr1 :: (Char -> Char -> Char) -> Text -> Text
scanr1 f t | null t    = empty
           | otherwise = scanr f (last t) (init t)

-- | /O(n)/ Like a combination of 'map' and 'foldl''. Applies a
-- function to each element of a 'Text', passing an accumulating
-- parameter from left to right, and returns a final 'Text'.  Performs
-- replacement on invalid scalar values.
mapAccumL :: (a -> Char -> (a,Char)) -> a -> Text -> (a, Text)
mapAccumL f = go
  where
    go z (Chunk c cs)    = (z'', Chunk c' cs')
        where (z',  c')  = T.mapAccumL f z c
              (z'', cs') = go z' cs
    go z Empty           = (z, Empty)
{-# INLINE mapAccumL #-}

-- | The 'mapAccumR' function behaves like a combination of 'map' and
-- a strict 'foldr'; it applies a function to each element of a
-- 'Text', passing an accumulating parameter from right to left, and
-- returning a final value of this accumulator together with the new
-- 'Text'.  Performs replacement on invalid scalar values.
mapAccumR :: (a -> Char -> (a,Char)) -> a -> Text -> (a, Text)
mapAccumR f = go
  where
    go z (Chunk c cs)   = (z'', Chunk c' cs')
        where (z'', c') = T.mapAccumR f z' c
              (z', cs') = go z cs
    go z Empty          = (z, Empty)
{-# INLINE mapAccumR #-}

-- | @'repeat' x@ is an infinite 'Text', with @x@ the value of every
-- element.
--
-- @since 1.2.0.5
repeat :: Char -> Text
repeat c = let t = Chunk (T.replicate smallChunkSize (T.singleton c)) t
            in t

-- | /O(n*m)/ 'replicate' @n@ @t@ is a 'Text' consisting of the input
-- @t@ repeated @n@ times.
replicate :: Int64 -> Text -> Text
replicate n
  | n <= 0 = P.const Empty
  | otherwise = \case
    Empty -> Empty
    Chunk t Empty -> replicateChunk n t
    t -> concat (rep n)
      where
        rep 0 = []
        rep i = t : rep (i - 1)
{-# INLINE [1] replicate #-}

replicateChunk :: Int64 -> T.Text -> Text
replicateChunk !n !t@(T.Text _ _ len)
  | n <= 0 = Empty
  | otherwise = Chunk headChunk $ P.foldr Chunk Empty (L.genericReplicate q normalChunk)
  where
    perChunk = defaultChunkSize `quot` len
    normalChunk = T.replicate perChunk t
    (q, r) = n `P.quotRem` intToInt64 perChunk
    headChunk = T.replicate (int64ToInt r) t
{-# INLINE replicateChunk #-}

-- | 'cycle' ties a finite, non-empty 'Text' into a circular one, or
-- equivalently, the infinite repetition of the original 'Text'.
--
-- @since 1.2.0.5
cycle :: HasCallStack => Text -> Text
cycle Empty = emptyError "cycle"
cycle t     = let t' = foldrChunks Chunk t' t
               in t'

-- | @'iterate' f x@ returns an infinite 'Text' of repeated applications
-- of @f@ to @x@:
--
-- > iterate f x == [x, f x, f (f x), ...]
--
-- @since 1.2.0.5
iterate :: (Char -> Char) -> Char -> Text
iterate f c = let t c' = Chunk (T.singleton c') (t (f c'))
               in t c

-- | /O(n)/, where @n@ is the length of the result. The 'unfoldr'
-- function is analogous to the List 'L.unfoldr'. 'unfoldr' builds a
-- 'Text' from a seed value. The function takes the element and
-- returns 'Nothing' if it is done producing the 'Text', otherwise
-- 'Just' @(a,b)@.  In this case, @a@ is the next 'Char' in the
-- string, and @b@ is the seed value for further production.
-- Performs replacement on invalid scalar values.
unfoldr :: (a -> Maybe (Char,a)) -> a -> Text
unfoldr f s = unstream (S.unfoldr (firstf safe . f) s)
{-# INLINE unfoldr #-}

-- | /O(n)/ Like 'unfoldr', 'unfoldrN' builds a 'Text' from a seed
-- value. However, the length of the result should be limited by the
-- first argument to 'unfoldrN'. This function is more efficient than
-- 'unfoldr' when the maximum length of the result is known and
-- correct, otherwise its performance is similar to 'unfoldr'.
-- Performs replacement on invalid scalar values.
unfoldrN :: Int64 -> (a -> Maybe (Char,a)) -> a -> Text
unfoldrN n f s = unstream (S.unfoldrN n (firstf safe . f) s)
{-# INLINE unfoldrN #-}

-- | /O(n)/ 'take' @n@, applied to a 'Text', returns the prefix of the
-- 'Text' of length @n@, or the 'Text' itself if @n@ is greater than
-- the length of the Text.
take :: Int64 -> Text -> Text
take i _ | i <= 0 = Empty
take i t0         = take' i t0
  where
    take' :: Int64 -> Text -> Text
    take' 0 _            = Empty
    take' _ Empty        = Empty
    take' n (Chunk t@(T.Text arr off _) ts)
        | finiteBitSize (0 :: P.Int) == 64, m <- T.measureOff (int64ToInt n) t =
          if m >= 0
          then fromStrict (T.Text arr off m)
          else Chunk t (take' (n + intToInt64 m) ts)

        | n < l     = Chunk (T.take (int64ToInt n) t) Empty
        | otherwise = Chunk t (take' (n - l) ts)
        where l = intToInt64 (T.length t)
{-# INLINE [1] take #-}

-- | /O(n)/ 'takeEnd' @n@ @t@ returns the suffix remaining after
-- taking @n@ characters from the end of @t@.
--
-- Examples:
--
-- > takeEnd 3 "foobar" == "bar"
--
-- @since 1.1.1.0
takeEnd :: Int64 -> Text -> Text
takeEnd n t0
    | n <= 0    = empty
    | otherwise = takeChunk n empty . L.reverse . toChunks $ t0
  where
    takeChunk :: Int64 -> Text -> [T.Text] -> Text
    takeChunk _ acc [] = acc
    takeChunk i acc (t:ts)
      | i <= l    = chunk (T.takeEnd (int64ToInt i) t) acc
      | otherwise = takeChunk (i-l) (Chunk t acc) ts
      where l = intToInt64 (T.length t)

-- | /O(n)/ 'drop' @n@, applied to a 'Text', returns the suffix of the
-- 'Text' after the first @n@ characters, or the empty 'Text' if @n@
-- is greater than the length of the 'Text'.
drop :: Int64 -> Text -> Text
drop i t0
    | i <= 0    = t0
    | otherwise = drop' i t0
  where
    drop' :: Int64 -> Text -> Text
    drop' 0 ts           = ts
    drop' _ Empty        = Empty
    drop' n (Chunk t@(T.Text arr off len) ts)
        | finiteBitSize (0 :: P.Int) == 64, m <- T.measureOff (int64ToInt n) t =
          if m >= 0
          then chunk (T.Text arr (off + m) (len - m)) ts
          else drop' (n + intToInt64 m) ts

        | n < l     = Chunk (T.drop (int64ToInt n) t) ts
        | otherwise = drop' (n - l) ts
        where l   = intToInt64 (T.length t)
{-# INLINE [1] drop #-}

-- | /O(n)/ 'dropEnd' @n@ @t@ returns the prefix remaining after
-- dropping @n@ characters from the end of @t@.
--
-- Examples:
--
-- > dropEnd 3 "foobar" == "foo"
--
-- @since 1.1.1.0
dropEnd :: Int64 -> Text -> Text
dropEnd n t0
    | n <= 0    = t0
    | otherwise = dropChunk n . L.reverse . toChunks $ t0
  where
    dropChunk :: Int64 -> [T.Text] -> Text
    dropChunk _ [] = empty
    dropChunk m (t:ts)
      | m >= l    = dropChunk (m-l) ts
      | otherwise = fromChunks . L.reverse $
                    T.dropEnd (int64ToInt m) t : ts
      where l = intToInt64 (T.length t)

-- | /O(n)/ 'dropWords' @n@ returns the suffix with @n@ 'Word8'
-- values dropped, or the empty 'Text' if @n@ is greater than the
-- number of 'Word8' values present.
dropWords :: Int64 -> Text -> Text
dropWords i t0
    | i <= 0    = t0
    | otherwise = drop' i t0
  where
    drop' :: Int64 -> Text -> Text
    drop' 0 ts           = ts
    drop' _ Empty        = Empty
    drop' n (Chunk (T.Text arr off len) ts)
        | n < len'  = chunk (text arr (off+n') (len-n')) ts
        | otherwise = drop' (n - len') ts
        where len'  = intToInt64 len
              n'    = int64ToInt n

-- | /O(n)/ 'takeWhile', applied to a predicate @p@ and a 'Text',
-- returns the longest prefix (possibly empty) of elements that
-- satisfy @p@.
takeWhile :: (Char -> Bool) -> Text -> Text
takeWhile p t0 = takeWhile' t0
  where takeWhile' Empty        = Empty
        takeWhile' (Chunk t ts) =
          case T.findIndex (not . p) t of
            Just n | n > 0     -> Chunk (T.take n t) Empty
                   | otherwise -> Empty
            Nothing            -> Chunk t (takeWhile' ts)
{-# INLINE [1] takeWhile #-}

-- | /O(n)/ 'takeWhileEnd', applied to a predicate @p@ and a 'Text',
-- returns the longest suffix (possibly empty) of elements that
-- satisfy @p@.
-- Examples:
--
-- > takeWhileEnd (=='o') "foo" == "oo"
--
-- @since 1.2.2.0
takeWhileEnd :: (Char -> Bool) -> Text -> Text
takeWhileEnd p = takeChunk empty . L.reverse . toChunks
  where takeChunk acc []     = acc
        takeChunk acc (t:ts)
          | T.lengthWord8 t' < T.lengthWord8 t
                             = chunk t' acc
          | otherwise        = takeChunk (Chunk t' acc) ts
          where t' = T.takeWhileEnd p t
{-# INLINE takeWhileEnd #-}

-- | /O(n)/ 'dropWhile' @p@ @t@ returns the suffix remaining after
-- 'takeWhile' @p@ @t@.
dropWhile :: (Char -> Bool) -> Text -> Text
dropWhile p t0 = dropWhile' t0
  where dropWhile' Empty        = Empty
        dropWhile' (Chunk t ts) =
          case T.findIndex (not . p) t of
            Just n  -> Chunk (T.drop n t) ts
            Nothing -> dropWhile' ts
{-# INLINE [1] dropWhile #-}

-- | /O(n)/ 'dropWhileEnd' @p@ @t@ returns the prefix remaining after
-- dropping characters that satisfy the predicate @p@ from the end of
-- @t@.
--
-- Examples:
--
-- > dropWhileEnd (=='.') "foo..." == "foo"
dropWhileEnd :: (Char -> Bool) -> Text -> Text
dropWhileEnd p = go
  where go Empty = Empty
        go (Chunk t Empty) = if T.null t'
                             then Empty
                             else Chunk t' Empty
            where t' = T.dropWhileEnd p t
        go (Chunk t ts) = case go ts of
                            Empty -> go (Chunk t Empty)
                            ts' -> Chunk t ts'
{-# INLINE dropWhileEnd #-}

-- | /O(n)/ 'dropAround' @p@ @t@ returns the substring remaining after
-- dropping characters that satisfy the predicate @p@ from both the
-- beginning and end of @t@.
dropAround :: (Char -> Bool) -> Text -> Text
dropAround p = dropWhile p . dropWhileEnd p
{-# INLINE [1] dropAround #-}

-- | /O(n)/ Remove leading white space from a string.  Equivalent to:
--
-- > dropWhile isSpace
stripStart :: Text -> Text
stripStart = dropWhile isSpace
{-# INLINE stripStart #-}

-- | /O(n)/ Remove trailing white space from a string.  Equivalent to:
--
-- > dropWhileEnd isSpace
stripEnd :: Text -> Text
stripEnd = dropWhileEnd isSpace
{-# INLINE [1] stripEnd #-}

-- | /O(n)/ Remove leading and trailing white space from a string.
-- Equivalent to:
--
-- > dropAround isSpace
strip :: Text -> Text
strip = dropAround isSpace
{-# INLINE [1] strip #-}

-- | /O(n)/ 'splitAt' @n t@ returns a pair whose first element is a
-- prefix of @t@ of length @n@, and whose second is the remainder of
-- the string. It is equivalent to @('take' n t, 'drop' n t)@.
splitAt :: Int64 -> Text -> (Text, Text)
splitAt = loop
  where
    loop :: Int64 -> Text -> (Text, Text)
    loop _ Empty      = (empty, empty)
    loop n t | n <= 0 = (empty, t)
    loop n (Chunk t ts)
         | n < len   = let (t',t'') = T.splitAt (int64ToInt n) t
                       in (Chunk t' Empty, Chunk t'' ts)
         | otherwise = let (ts',ts'') = loop (n - len) ts
                       in (Chunk t ts', ts'')
         where len = intToInt64 (T.length t)

-- | /O(n)/ 'splitAtWord' @n t@ returns a strict pair whose first
-- element is a prefix of @t@ whose chunks contain @n@ 'Word8'
-- values, and whose second is the remainder of the string.
splitAtWord :: Int64 -> Text -> PairS Text Text
splitAtWord _ Empty = empty :*: empty
splitAtWord x (Chunk c@(T.Text arr off len) cs)
    | y >= len  = let h :*: t = splitAtWord (x-intToInt64 len) cs
                  in  Chunk c h :*: t
    | otherwise = chunk (text arr off y) empty :*:
                  chunk (text arr (off+y) (len-y)) cs
    where y = int64ToInt x

-- | /O(n+m)/ Find the first instance of @needle@ (which must be
-- non-'null') in @haystack@.  The first element of the returned tuple
-- is the prefix of @haystack@ before @needle@ is matched.  The second
-- is the remainder of @haystack@, starting with the match.
--
-- Examples:
--
-- > breakOn "::" "a::b::c" ==> ("a", "::b::c")
-- > breakOn "/" "foobar"   ==> ("foobar", "")
--
-- Laws:
--
-- > append prefix match == haystack
-- >   where (prefix, match) = breakOn needle haystack
--
-- If you need to break a string by a substring repeatedly (e.g. you
-- want to break on every instance of a substring), use 'breakOnAll'
-- instead, as it has lower startup overhead.
--
-- This function is strict in its first argument, and lazy in its
-- second.
--
-- In (unlikely) bad cases, this function's time complexity degrades
-- towards /O(n*m)/.
breakOn :: HasCallStack => Text -> Text -> (Text, Text)
breakOn pat src
    | null pat  = emptyError "breakOn"
    | otherwise = case indices pat src of
                    []    -> (src, empty)
                    (x:_) -> let h :*: t = splitAtWord x src
                             in  (h, t)

-- | /O(n+m)/ Similar to 'breakOn', but searches from the end of the string.
--
-- The first element of the returned tuple is the prefix of @haystack@
-- up to and including the last match of @needle@.  The second is the
-- remainder of @haystack@, following the match.
--
-- > breakOnEnd "::" "a::b::c" ==> ("a::b::", "c")
breakOnEnd :: HasCallStack => Text -> Text -> (Text, Text)
breakOnEnd pat src = let (a,b) = breakOn (reverse pat) (reverse src)
                   in  (reverse b, reverse a)
{-# INLINE breakOnEnd #-}

-- | /O(n+m)/ Find all non-overlapping instances of @needle@ in
-- @haystack@.  Each element of the returned list consists of a pair:
--
-- * The entire string prior to the /k/th match (i.e. the prefix)
--
-- * The /k/th match, followed by the remainder of the string
--
-- Examples:
--
-- > breakOnAll "::" ""
-- > ==> []
-- > breakOnAll "/" "a/b/c/"
-- > ==> [("a", "/b/c/"), ("a/b", "/c/"), ("a/b/c", "/")]
--
-- This function is strict in its first argument, and lazy in its
-- second.
--
-- In (unlikely) bad cases, this function's time complexity degrades
-- towards /O(n*m)/.
--
-- The @needle@ parameter may not be empty.
breakOnAll :: HasCallStack
           => Text              -- ^ @needle@ to search for
           -> Text              -- ^ @haystack@ in which to search
           -> [(Text, Text)]
breakOnAll pat src
    | null pat  = emptyError "breakOnAll"
    | otherwise = go 0 empty src (indices pat src)
  where
    go !n p s (x:xs) = let h :*: t = splitAtWord (x-n) s
                           h'      = append p h
                       in (h',t) : go x h' t xs
    go _  _ _ _      = []

-- | /O(n)/ 'break' is like 'span', but the prefix returned is over
-- elements that fail the predicate @p@.
--
-- >>> T.break (=='c') "180cm"
-- ("180","cm")
break :: (Char -> Bool) -> Text -> (Text, Text)
break p t0 = break' t0
  where break' Empty          = (empty, empty)
        break' c@(Chunk t ts) =
          case T.findIndex p t of
            Nothing      -> let (ts', ts'') = break' ts
                            in (Chunk t ts', ts'')
            Just n | n == 0    -> (Empty, c)
                   | otherwise -> let (a,b) = T.splitAt n t
                                  in (Chunk a Empty, Chunk b ts)

-- | /O(n)/ 'span', applied to a predicate @p@ and text @t@, returns
-- a pair whose first element is the longest prefix (possibly empty)
-- of @t@ of elements that satisfy @p@, and whose second is the
-- remainder of the list.
--
-- >>> T.span (=='0') "000AB"
-- ("000","AB")
span :: (Char -> Bool) -> Text -> (Text, Text)
span p = break (not . p)
{-# INLINE span #-}

-- | The 'group' function takes a 'Text' and returns a list of 'Text's
-- such that the concatenation of the result is equal to the argument.
-- Moreover, each sublist in the result contains only equal elements.
-- For example,
--
-- > group "Mississippi" = ["M","i","ss","i","ss","i","pp","i"]
--
-- It is a special case of 'groupBy', which allows the programmer to
-- supply their own equality test.
group :: Text -> [Text]
group =  groupBy (==)
{-# INLINE group #-}

-- | The 'groupBy' function is the non-overloaded version of 'group'.
groupBy :: (Char -> Char -> Bool) -> Text -> [Text]
groupBy _  Empty        = []
groupBy eq (Chunk t ts) = cons x ys : groupBy eq zs
                          where (ys,zs) = span (eq x) xs
                                x  = T.unsafeHead t
                                xs = chunk (T.unsafeTail t) ts

-- | /O(n)/ Return all initial segments of the given 'Text',
-- shortest first.
inits :: Text -> [Text]
inits = (Empty :) . inits'
  where inits' Empty        = []
        inits' (Chunk t ts) = L.map (\t' -> Chunk t' Empty) (L.tail (T.inits t))
                           ++ L.map (Chunk t) (inits' ts)

-- | /O(n)/ Return all final segments of the given 'Text', longest
-- first.
tails :: Text -> [Text]
tails Empty         = Empty : []
tails ts@(Chunk t ts')
  | T.length t == 1 = ts : tails ts'
  | otherwise       = ts : tails (Chunk (T.unsafeTail t) ts')

-- $split
--
-- Splitting functions in this library do not perform character-wise
-- copies to create substrings; they just construct new 'Text's that
-- are slices of the original.

-- | /O(m+n)/ Break a 'Text' into pieces separated by the first 'Text'
-- argument (which cannot be an empty string), consuming the
-- delimiter. An empty delimiter is invalid, and will cause an error
-- to be raised.
--
-- Examples:
--
-- > splitOn "\r\n" "a\r\nb\r\nd\r\ne" == ["a","b","d","e"]
-- > splitOn "aaa"  "aaaXaaaXaaaXaaa"  == ["","X","X","X",""]
-- > splitOn "x"    "x"                == ["",""]
--
-- and
--
-- > intercalate s . splitOn s         == id
-- > splitOn (singleton c)             == split (==c)
--
-- (Note: the string @s@ to split on above cannot be empty.)
--
-- This function is strict in its first argument, and lazy in its
-- second.
--
-- In (unlikely) bad cases, this function's time complexity degrades
-- towards /O(n*m)/.
splitOn :: HasCallStack
        => Text
        -- ^ String to split on. If this string is empty, an error
        -- will occur.
        -> Text
        -- ^ Input text.
        -> [Text]
splitOn pat src
    | null pat        = emptyError "splitOn"
    | isSingleton pat = split (== head pat) src
    | otherwise       = go 0 (indices pat src) src
  where
    go  _ []     cs = [cs]
    go !i (x:xs) cs = let h :*: t = splitAtWord (x-i) cs
                      in  h : go (x+l) xs (dropWords l t)
    l = foldlChunks (\a (T.Text _ _ b) -> a + intToInt64 b) 0 pat
{-# INLINE [1] splitOn #-}

{-# RULES
"LAZY TEXT splitOn/singleton -> split/==" [~1] forall c t.
    splitOn (singleton c) t = split (==c) t
  #-}

-- | /O(n)/ Splits a 'Text' into components delimited by separators,
-- where the predicate returns True for a separator element.  The
-- resulting components do not contain the separators.  Two adjacent
-- separators result in an empty component in the output.  eg.
--
-- > split (=='a') "aabbaca" == ["","","bb","c",""]
-- > split (=='a') []        == [""]
split :: (Char -> Bool) -> Text -> [Text]
split _ Empty = [Empty]
split p (Chunk t0 ts0) = comb [] (T.split p t0) ts0
  where comb acc (s:[]) Empty        = revChunks (s:acc) : []
        comb acc (s:[]) (Chunk t ts) = comb (s:acc) (T.split p t) ts
        comb acc (s:ss) ts           = revChunks (s:acc) : comb [] ss ts
        comb _   []     _            = impossibleError "split"
{-# INLINE split #-}

-- | /O(n)/ Splits a 'Text' into components of length @k@.  The last
-- element may be shorter than the other chunks, depending on the
-- length of the input. Examples:
--
-- > chunksOf 3 "foobarbaz"   == ["foo","bar","baz"]
-- > chunksOf 4 "haskell.org" == ["hask","ell.","org"]
chunksOf :: Int64 -> Text -> [Text]
chunksOf k = go
  where
    go t = case splitAt k t of
             (a,b) | null a    -> []
                   | otherwise -> a : go b
{-# INLINE chunksOf #-}

-- | /O(n)/ Breaks a 'Text' up into a list of 'Text's at newline characters
-- @'\\n'@ (LF, line feed). The resulting strings do not contain newlines.
--
-- 'lines' __does not__ treat @'\\r'@ (CR, carriage return) as a newline character.
lines :: Text -> [Text]
lines Empty = []
lines t = NE.toList $ go t
  where
    go :: Text -> NonEmpty Text
    go Empty = Empty :| []
    go (Chunk x xs)
      -- x is non-empty, so T.lines x is non-empty as well
      | hasNlEnd x = NE.fromList $ P.map fromStrict (T.lines x) ++ lines xs
      | otherwise = case unsnocList (T.lines x) of
      Nothing -> impossibleError "lines"
      Just (ls, l) -> P.foldr (NE.cons . fromStrict) (prependToHead l (go xs)) ls

prependToHead :: T.Text -> NonEmpty Text -> NonEmpty Text
prependToHead l ~(x :| xs) = chunk l x :| xs -- Lazy pattern is crucial!

unsnocList :: [a] -> Maybe ([a], a)
unsnocList [] = Nothing
unsnocList (x : xs) = Just $ go x xs
  where
    go y [] = ([], y)
    go y (z : zs) = first (y :) (go z zs)

hasNlEnd :: T.Text -> Bool
hasNlEnd (T.Text arr off len) = A.unsafeIndex arr (off + len - 1) == 0x0A

-- | /O(n)/ Breaks a 'Text' up into a list of words, delimited by 'Char's
-- representing white space.
words :: Text -> [Text]
words = L.filter (not . null) . split isSpace
{-# INLINE words #-}

-- | /O(n)/ Joins lines, after appending a terminating newline to
-- each.
unlines :: [Text] -> Text
unlines = concat . L.foldr (\t acc -> t : singleton '\n' : acc) []
{-# INLINE unlines #-}

-- | /O(n)/ Joins words using single space characters.
unwords :: [Text] -> Text
unwords = intercalate (singleton ' ')
{-# INLINE unwords #-}

-- | /O(n)/ The 'isPrefixOf' function takes two 'Text's and returns
-- 'True' iff the first is a prefix of the second.
isPrefixOf :: Text -> Text -> Bool
isPrefixOf Empty _  = True
isPrefixOf _ Empty  = False
isPrefixOf (Chunk x xs) (Chunk y ys)
    | lx == ly  = x == y  && isPrefixOf xs ys
    | lx <  ly  = x == yh && isPrefixOf xs (Chunk yt ys)
    | otherwise = xh == y && isPrefixOf (Chunk xt xs) ys
  where (xh,xt) = T.splitAt ly x
        (yh,yt) = T.splitAt lx y
        lx = T.length x
        ly = T.length y
{-# INLINE [1] isPrefixOf #-}

-- | /O(n)/ The 'isSuffixOf' function takes two 'Text's and returns
-- 'True' iff the first is a suffix of the second.
isSuffixOf :: Text -> Text -> Bool
isSuffixOf x y = reverse x `isPrefixOf` reverse y
{-# INLINE isSuffixOf #-}
-- TODO: a better implementation

-- | /O(n+m)/ The 'isInfixOf' function takes two 'Text's and returns
-- 'True' iff the first is contained, wholly and intact, anywhere
-- within the second.
--
-- This function is strict in its first argument, and lazy in its
-- second.
--
-- In (unlikely) bad cases, this function's time complexity degrades
-- towards /O(n*m)/.
isInfixOf :: Text -> Text -> Bool
isInfixOf needle haystack
    | null needle        = True
    | isSingleton needle = S.elem (head needle) . S.stream $ haystack
    | otherwise          = not . L.null . indices needle $ haystack
{-# INLINE [1] isInfixOf #-}

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- * View patterns

-- | /O(n)/ Return the suffix of the second string if its prefix
-- matches the entire first string.
--
-- Examples:
--
-- > stripPrefix "foo" "foobar" == Just "bar"
-- > stripPrefix ""    "baz"    == Just "baz"
-- > stripPrefix "foo" "quux"   == Nothing
--
-- This is particularly useful with the @ViewPatterns@ extension to
-- GHC, as follows:
--
-- > {-# LANGUAGE ViewPatterns #-}
-- > import Data.Text.Lazy as T
-- >
-- > fnordLength :: Text -> Int
-- > fnordLength (stripPrefix "fnord" -> Just suf) = T.length suf
-- > fnordLength _                                 = -1
stripPrefix :: Text -> Text -> Maybe Text
stripPrefix p t
    | null p    = Just t
    | otherwise = case commonPrefixes p t of
                    Just (_,c,r) | null c -> Just r
                    _                     -> Nothing

-- | /O(n)/ Find the longest non-empty common prefix of two strings
-- and return it, along with the suffixes of each string at which they
-- no longer match.
--
-- If the strings do not have a common prefix or either one is empty,
-- this function returns 'Nothing'.
--
-- Examples:
--
-- > commonPrefixes "foobar" "fooquux" == Just ("foo","bar","quux")
-- > commonPrefixes "veeble" "fetzer"  == Nothing
-- > commonPrefixes "" "baz"           == Nothing
commonPrefixes :: Text -> Text -> Maybe (Text,Text,Text)
commonPrefixes Empty _ = Nothing
commonPrefixes _ Empty = Nothing
commonPrefixes a0 b0   = Just (go a0 b0 [])
  where
    go t0@(Chunk x xs) t1@(Chunk y ys) ps
        = case T.commonPrefixes x y of
            Just (p,a,b)
              | T.null a  -> go xs (chunk b ys) (p:ps)
              | T.null b  -> go (chunk a xs) ys (p:ps)
              | otherwise -> (fromChunks (L.reverse (p:ps)),chunk a xs, chunk b ys)
            Nothing       -> (fromChunks (L.reverse ps),t0,t1)
    go t0 t1 ps = (fromChunks (L.reverse ps),t0,t1)

-- | /O(n)/ Return the prefix of the second string if its suffix
-- matches the entire first string.
--
-- Examples:
--
-- > stripSuffix "bar" "foobar" == Just "foo"
-- > stripSuffix ""    "baz"    == Just "baz"
-- > stripSuffix "foo" "quux"   == Nothing
--
-- This is particularly useful with the @ViewPatterns@ extension to
-- GHC, as follows:
--
-- > {-# LANGUAGE ViewPatterns #-}
-- > import Data.Text.Lazy as T
-- >
-- > quuxLength :: Text -> Int
-- > quuxLength (stripSuffix "quux" -> Just pre) = T.length pre
-- > quuxLength _                                = -1
stripSuffix :: Text -> Text -> Maybe Text
stripSuffix p t = reverse `fmap` stripPrefix (reverse p) (reverse t)

-- | /O(n)/ 'filter', applied to a predicate and a 'Text',
-- returns a 'Text' containing those characters that satisfy the
-- predicate.
filter :: (Char -> Bool) -> Text -> Text
filter p = foldrChunks (chunk . T.filter p) Empty
{-# INLINE [1] filter #-}

{-# RULES
"TEXT filter/filter -> filter" forall p q t.
    filter p (filter q t) = filter (\c -> p c && q c) t
#-}

-- | /O(n)/ The 'find' function takes a predicate and a 'Text', and
-- returns the first element in matching the predicate, or 'Nothing'
-- if there is no such element.
find :: (Char -> Bool) -> Text -> Maybe Char
find p t = S.findBy p (stream t)
{-# INLINE find #-}

-- | /O(n)/ The 'elem' function takes a character and a 'Text', and
-- returns 'True' if the element is found in the given 'Text', or
-- 'False' otherwise.
elem :: Char -> Text -> Bool
elem c t = S.any (== c) (stream t)
{-# INLINE elem #-}

-- | /O(n)/ The 'partition' function takes a predicate and a 'Text',
-- and returns the pair of 'Text's with elements which do and do not
-- satisfy the predicate, respectively; i.e.
--
-- > partition p t == (filter p t, filter (not . p) t)
partition :: (Char -> Bool) -> Text -> (Text, Text)
partition p t = (filter p t, filter (not . p) t)
{-# INLINE partition #-}

-- | /O(n)/ 'Text' index (subscript) operator, starting from 0.
index :: HasCallStack => Text -> Int64 -> Char
index t n = S.index (stream t) n
{-# INLINE index #-}

-- | /O(n+m)/ The 'count' function returns the number of times the
-- query string appears in the given 'Text'. An empty query string is
-- invalid, and will cause an error to be raised.
--
-- In (unlikely) bad cases, this function's time complexity degrades
-- towards /O(n*m)/.
count :: HasCallStack => Text -> Text -> Int64
count pat
    | null pat        = emptyError "count"
    | otherwise       = go 0  . indices pat
  where go !n []     = n
        go !n (_:xs) = go (n+1) xs
{-# INLINE [1] count #-}

{-# RULES
"LAZY TEXT count/singleton -> countChar" [~1] forall c t.
    count (singleton c) t = countChar c t
  #-}

-- | /O(n)/ The 'countChar' function returns the number of times the
-- query element appears in the given 'Text'.
countChar :: Char -> Text -> Int64
countChar c t = S.countChar c (stream t)

-- | /O(n)/ 'zip' takes two 'Text's and returns a list of
-- corresponding pairs of bytes. If one input 'Text' is short,
-- excess elements of the longer 'Text' are discarded. This is
-- equivalent to a pair of 'unpack' operations.
zip :: Text -> Text -> [(Char,Char)]
zip a b = S.unstreamList $ S.zipWith (,) (stream a) (stream b)
{-# INLINE [0] zip #-}

-- | /O(n)/ 'zipWith' generalises 'zip' by zipping with the function
-- given as the first argument, instead of a tupling function.
-- Performs replacement on invalid scalar values.
zipWith :: (Char -> Char -> Char) -> Text -> Text -> Text
zipWith f t1 t2 = unstream (S.zipWith g (stream t1) (stream t2))
    where g a b = safe (f a b)
{-# INLINE [0] zipWith #-}

revChunks :: [T.Text] -> Text
revChunks = L.foldl' (flip chunk) Empty

emptyError :: HasCallStack => String -> a
emptyError fun = P.error ("Data.Text.Lazy." ++ fun ++ ": empty input")

impossibleError :: HasCallStack => String -> a
impossibleError fun = P.error ("Data.Text.Lazy." ++ fun ++ ": impossible case")

intToInt64 :: Exts.Int -> Int64
intToInt64 = fromIntegral

int64ToInt :: Int64 -> Exts.Int
int64ToInt = fromIntegral