.. _derive-any-class:
Deriving any other class
------------------------
.. extension:: DeriveAnyClass
:shortdesc: Enable deriving for any class.
:since: 7.10.1
Allow use of any typeclass in ``deriving`` clauses.
With :extension:`DeriveAnyClass` you can derive any other class. The compiler
will simply generate an instance declaration with no explicitly-defined
methods.
This is
mostly useful in classes whose `minimal set <#minimal-pragma>`__ is
empty, and especially when writing
`generic functions <#generic-programming>`__.
As an example, consider a simple pretty-printer class ``SPretty``, which outputs
pretty strings: ::
{-# LANGUAGE DefaultSignatures, DeriveAnyClass #-}
class SPretty a where
sPpr :: a -> String
default sPpr :: Show a => a -> String
sPpr = show
If a user does not provide a manual implementation for ``sPpr``, then it will
default to ``show``. Now we can leverage the :extension:`DeriveAnyClass` extension to
easily implement a ``SPretty`` instance for a new data type: ::
data Foo = Foo deriving (Show, SPretty)
The above code is equivalent to: ::
data Foo = Foo deriving Show
instance SPretty Foo
That is, an ``SPretty Foo`` instance will be created with empty implementations
for all methods. Since we are using :extension:`DefaultSignatures` in this example, a
default implementation of ``sPpr`` is filled in automatically.
Note the following details
- In case you try to derive some
class on a newtype, and :extension:`GeneralizedNewtypeDeriving` is also on,
:extension:`DeriveAnyClass` takes precedence.
- The instance context is determined by the type signatures of the derived
class's methods. For instance, if the class is: ::
class Foo a where
bar :: a -> String
default bar :: Show a => a -> String
bar = show
baz :: a -> a -> Bool
default baz :: Ord a => a -> a -> Bool
baz x y = compare x y == EQ
And you attempt to derive it using :extension:`DeriveAnyClass`: ::
instance Eq a => Eq (Option a) where ...
instance Ord a => Ord (Option a) where ...
instance Show a => Show (Option a) where ...
data Option a = None | Some a deriving Foo
Then the derived ``Foo`` instance will be: ::
instance (Show a, Ord a) => Foo (Option a)
Since the default type signatures for ``bar`` and ``baz`` require ``Show a``
and ``Ord a`` constraints, respectively.
Constraints on the non-default type signatures can play a role in inferring
the instance context as well. For example, if you have this class: ::
class HigherEq f where
(==#) :: f a -> f a -> Bool
default (==#) :: Eq (f a) => f a -> f a -> Bool
x ==# y = (x == y)
And you tried to derive an instance for it: ::
instance Eq a => Eq (Option a) where ...
data Option a = None | Some a deriving HigherEq
Then it will fail with an error to the effect of: ::
No instance for (Eq a)
arising from the 'deriving' clause of a data type declaration
That is because we require an ``Eq (Option a)`` instance from the default
type signature for ``(==#)``, which in turn requires an ``Eq a`` instance,
which we don't have in scope. But if you tweak the definition of
``HigherEq`` slightly: ::
class HigherEq f where
(==#) :: Eq a => f a -> f a -> Bool
default (==#) :: Eq (f a) => f a -> f a -> Bool
x ==# y = (x == y)
Then it becomes possible to derive a ``HigherEq Option`` instance. Note that
the only difference is that now the non-default type signature for ``(==#)``
brings in an ``Eq a`` constraint. Constraints from non-default type
signatures never appear in the derived instance context itself, but they can
be used to discharge obligations that are demanded by the default type
signatures. In the example above, the default type signature demanded an
``Eq a`` instance, and the non-default signature was able to satisfy that
request, so the derived instance is simply: ::
instance HigherEq Option
- :extension:`DeriveAnyClass` can be used with partially applied classes,
such as ::
data T a = MKT a deriving( D Int )
which generates ::
instance D Int a => D Int (T a) where {}
- :extension:`DeriveAnyClass` can be used to fill in default instances for
associated type families: ::
{-# LANGUAGE DeriveAnyClass, TypeFamilies #-}
class Sizable a where
type Size a
type Size a = Int
data Bar = Bar deriving Sizable
doubleBarSize :: Size Bar -> Size Bar
doubleBarSize s = 2*s
The ``deriving( Sizable )`` is equivalent to saying ::
instance Sizeable Bar where {}
and then the normal rules for filling in associated types from the
default will apply, making ``Size Bar`` equal to ``Int``.