.. _visible-type-application:
Visible type application
========================
.. extension:: TypeApplications
:shortdesc: Enable type application syntax in terms, patterns and types.
:since: 8.0.1
:status: Included in :extension:`GHC2021`
Allow the use of type application syntax.
The :extension:`TypeApplications` extension allows you to use
*visible type application* in expressions. Here is an
example: ``show (read @Int "5")``. The ``@Int``
is the visible type application; it specifies the value of the type variable
in ``read``'s type.
A visible type application is preceded with an ``@``
sign. (To disambiguate the syntax, the ``@`` must be
preceded with a non-identifier letter, usually a space. For example,
``read@Int 5`` would not parse.) It can be used whenever
the full polymorphic type of the function is known. If the function
is an identifier (the common case), its type is considered known only when
the identifier has been given a type signature. If the identifier does
not have a type signature, visible type application cannot be used.
GHC also permits visible kind application, where users can declare the kind
arguments to be instantiated in kind-polymorphic cases. Its usage parallels
visible type application in the term level, as specified above.
In addition to visible type application in terms and types, the type application
syntax can be used in patterns matching a data constructor to bind type variables
in that constructor's type.
.. _inferred-vs-specified:
Inferred vs. specified type variables
-------------------------------------
.. index::
single: type variable; inferred vs. specified
GHC tracks a distinction between what we call *inferred* and *specified*
type variables. Only specified type variables are available for instantiation
with visible type application. An example illustrates this well::
f :: (Eq b, Eq a) => a -> b -> Bool
f x y = (x == x) && (y == y)
g x y = (x == x) && (y == y)
The functions ``f`` and ``g`` have the same body, but only ``f`` is given
a type signature. When GHC is figuring out how to process a visible type application,
it must know what variable to instantiate. It thus must be able to provide
an ordering to the type variables in a function's type.
If the user has supplied a type signature, as in ``f``, then this is easy:
we just take the ordering from the type signature, going left to right and
using the first occurrence of a variable to choose its position within the
ordering. Thus, the variables in ``f`` will be ``b``, then ``a``.
In contrast, there is no reliable way to do this for ``g``; we will not know
whether ``Eq a`` or ``Eq b`` will be listed first in the constraint in ``g``\'s
type. In order to have visible type application be robust between releases of
GHC, we thus forbid its use with ``g``.
We say that the type variables in ``f`` are *specified*, while those in
``g`` are *inferred*. The general rule is this: if the user has written
a type variable in the source program, it is *specified*; if not, it is
*inferred*.
This rule applies in datatype declarations, too. For example, if we have
``data Proxy a = Proxy`` (and :extension:`PolyKinds` is enabled), then
``a`` will be assigned kind ``k``, where ``k`` is a fresh kind variable.
Because ``k`` was not written by the user, it will be unavailable for
type application in the type of the constructor ``Proxy``; only the ``a``
will be available.
Inferred variables are printed in braces. Thus, the type of the data
constructor ``Proxy`` from the previous example is
``forall {k} (a :: k). Proxy a``.
We can observe this behavior in a GHCi session: ::
> :set -XTypeApplications -fprint-explicit-foralls
> let myLength1 :: Foldable f => f a -> Int; myLength1 = length
> :type myLength1
myLength1 :: forall (f :: * -> *) a. Foldable f => f a -> Int
> let myLength2 = length
> :type myLength2
myLength2 :: forall {t :: * -> *} {a}. Foldable t => t a -> Int
> :type myLength2 @[]
:1:1: error:
• Cannot apply expression of type ‘t0 a0 -> Int’
to a visible type argument ‘[]’
• In the expression: myLength2 @[]
Notice that since ``myLength1`` was defined with an explicit type signature,
:ghci-cmd:`:type` reports that all of its type variables are available
for type application. On the other hand, ``myLength2`` was not given a type
signature. As a result, all of its type variables are surrounded with braces,
and trying to use visible type application with ``myLength2`` fails.
.. index::
single: ScopedSort
.. _ScopedSort:
Ordering of specified variables
-------------------------------
In the simple case of the previous section, we can say that specified variables
appear in left-to-right order. However, not all cases are so simple. Here are
the rules in the subtler cases:
- If an identifier's type has a ``forall``, then the order of type variables
as written in the ``forall`` is retained.
- If any of the variables depend on other variables (that is, if some
of the variables are *kind* variables), the variables are reordered
so that kind variables come before type variables, preserving the
left-to-right order as much as possible. That is, GHC performs a
stable topological sort on the variables. Example::
h :: Proxy (a :: (j, k)) -> Proxy (b :: Proxy a) -> ()
-- as if h :: forall j k a b. ...
In this example, ``a`` depends on ``j`` and ``k``, and ``b`` depends on ``a``.
Even though ``a`` appears lexically before ``j`` and ``k``, ``j`` and ``k``
are quantified first, because ``a`` depends on ``j`` and ``k``. Note further
that ``j`` and ``k`` are not reordered with respect to each other, even
though doing so would not violate dependency conditions.
A "stable topological sort" here, we mean that we perform this algorithm
(which we call *ScopedSort*):
* Work left-to-right through the input list of type variables, with a cursor.
* If variable ``v`` at the cursor is depended on by any earlier variable ``w``,
move ``v`` immediately before the leftmost such ``w``.
- Class methods' type arguments include the class type
variables, followed by any variables an individual method is polymorphic
in. So, ``class Monad m where return :: a -> m a`` means
that ``return``'s type arguments are ``m, a``.
- With the :extension:`RankNTypes` extension
(:ref:`universal-quantification`), it is possible to declare
type arguments somewhere other than the beginning of a type. For example,
we can have ``pair :: forall a. a -> forall b. b -> (a, b)``
and then say ``pair @Bool True @Char`` which would have
type ``Char -> (Bool, Char)``.
- Partial type signatures (:ref:`partial-type-signatures`)
work nicely with visible type
application. If you want to specify only the second type argument to
``wurble``, then you can say ``wurble @_ @Int``.
The first argument is a wildcard, just like in a partial type signature.
However, if used in a visible type application/visible kind application,
it is *not* necessary to specify :extension:`PartialTypeSignatures` and your
code will not generate a warning informing you of the omitted type.
The section in this manual on kind polymorphism describes how variables
in type and class declarations are ordered (:ref:`inferring-variable-order`).
.. _Manually-defining-inferred-variables:
Manually defining inferred variables
------------------------------------
Since the 9.0.1 release, GHC permits labelling the user-written
type or kind variables as *inferred*, in contrast
to the default of *specified*. By writing the type variable binder in
braces as ``{tyvar}`` or ``{tyvar :: kind}``, the new variable will be
classified as inferred, not specified. Doing so gives the programmer control
over which variables can be manually instantiated and which can't.
Note that the braces do not influence scoping: variables in braces are still
brought into scope just the same.
Consider for example::
myConst :: forall {a} b. a -> b -> a
myConst x _ = x
In this example, despite both variables appearing in a type signature, ``a`` is
an inferred variable while ``b`` is specified. This means that the expression
``myConst @Int`` has type ``forall {a}. a -> Int -> a``.
The braces are allowed in the following places:
- In the type signatures of functions, variables, class methods, as well as type
annotations on expressions. Consider the example above.
- In data constructor declarations, using the GADT syntax. Consider::
data T a where MkT :: forall {k} (a :: k). Proxy a -> T a
The constructor ``MkT`` defined in this example is kind polymorphic, which is
emphasized to the reader by explicitly abstracting over the ``k`` variable.
As this variable is marked as inferred, it can not be manually instantiated.
- In existential variable quantifications, e.g.::
data HList = HNil
| forall {a}. HCons a HList
- In pattern synonym signatures. Consider for instance::
data T a where MkT :: forall a b. a -> b -> T a
pattern Pat :: forall {c}. () => forall {d}. c -> d -> T c
pattern Pat x y = MkT x y
Note that in this example, ``a`` is a universal variable in the data type
``T``, where ``b`` is existential. When writing the pattern synonym, both
types are allowed to be specified or inferred.
- On the right-hand side of a type synonym, e.g.::
type Foo = forall a {b}. Either a b
- In type signatures on variables bound in RULES, e.g.::
{-# RULES "parametricity" forall (f :: forall {a}. a -> a). map f = id #-}
The braces are *not* allowed in the following places:
- In visible dependent quantifiers. Consider::
data T :: forall {k} -> k -> Type
This example is rejected, as a visible argument should by definition be
explicitly applied. Making them inferred (and thus not appliable) would be
conflicting.
- In SPECIALISE pragmas or in instance declaration heads, e.g.::
instance forall {a}. Eq (Maybe a) where ...
The reason for this is, essentially, that none of these define a new
construct. This means that no new type is being defined where specificity
could play a role.
- On the left-hand sides of type declarations, such as classes, data types, etc.
Note that while specified and inferred type variables have different properties
vis-à-vis visible type application, they do not otherwise affect GHC's notion
of equality over types. For example, given the following definitions: ::
id1 :: forall a. a -> a
id1 x = x
id2 :: forall {a}. a -> a
id2 x = x
app1 :: (forall a. a -> a) -> b -> b
app1 g x = g x
app2 :: (forall {a}. a -> a) -> b -> b
app2 g x = g x
GHC will deem all of ``app1 id1``, ``app1 id2``, ``app2 id1``, and ``app2 id2``
to be well typed.
.. _type-applications-in-patterns:
Type Applications in Patterns
-----------------------------
The type application syntax can be used in patterns that match a data
constructor. The syntax can't be used with record patterns or infix patterns.
This is useful in particular to bind existential type variables associated with
a GADT data constructor as in the following example::
{-# LANGUAGE AllowAmbiguousTypes #-}
{-# LANGUAGE GADTs #-}
{-# LANGUAGE RankNTypes #-}
{-# LANGUAGE TypeApplications #-}
import Data.Proxy
data Foo where
Foo :: forall a. (Show a, Num a) => Foo
test :: Foo -> String
test x = case x of
Foo @t -> show @t 0
main :: IO ()
main = print $ test (Foo @Float)
In this example, the case in ``test``` is binding an existential variable introduced
by ``Foo`` that otherwise could not be named and used.
It's possible to bind variables to any part of the type arguments to a constructor;
there is no need for them to be existential. In addition, it's possible to "match" against
part of the type argument using type constructors.
For a somewhat-contrived example::
foo :: (Num a) => Maybe [a] -> String
foo (Nothing @[t]) = show (0 :: t)
foo (Just @[t] xs) = show (sum xs :: t)
Here, we're binding the type variable t to be the type of the elements of the list type
which is itself the argument to Maybe.
The order of the type arguments specified by the type applications in a pattern is the same
as that for an expression: either the order as given by the user in an explicit ``forall`` in the
definition of the data constructor, or if that is not present, the order in which the type
variables appear in its type signature from left to right.
For example if we have the following declaration in GADT syntax::
data Foo :: * -> * where
A :: forall s t. [(t,s)] -> Foo (t,s)
B :: (t,s) -> Foo (t,s)
Then the type arguments to ``A`` will match first ``s`` and then ``t``, while the type arguments
to ``B`` will match first ``t`` and then ``s``.
Type arguments appearing in patterns can influence the inferred type of a definition::
foo (Nothing @Int) = 0
foo (Just x) = x
will have inferred type::
foo :: Maybe Int -> Int
which is more restricted than what it would be without the application::
foo :: Num a => Maybe a -> a
For more information and detail regarding type applications in patterns, see the paper
`Type variables in patterns `__ by Eisenberg, Breitner
and Peyton Jones. Relative to that paper, the implementation in GHC for now at least makes one
additional conservative restriction, that type variables occurring in patterns must not
already be in scope, and so are always new variables that only bind whatever type is
matched, rather than ever referring to a variable from an outer scope. Type wildcards
``_`` may be used in any place where no new variable needs binding.