6.9.8. Overloaded labels



Enable use of the #foo overloaded label syntax.

GHC supports overloaded labels, a form of identifier whose interpretation may depend both on its type and on its literal text. When the OverloadedLabels extension is enabled, an overloaded label can be written with a prefix hash, for example #foo. The type of this expression is IsLabel "foo" a => a.

The class IsLabel is defined as:

class IsLabel (x :: Symbol) a where
  fromLabel :: a

This is rather similar to the class IsString (see Overloaded string literals), but with an additional type parameter that makes the text of the label available as a type-level string (see Type-Level Literals). Note that fromLabel had an extra Proxy# x argument in GHC 8.0, but this was removed in GHC 8.2 as a type application (see Visible type application) can be used instead.

There are no predefined instances of this class. It is not in scope by default, but can be brought into scope by importing GHC.OverloadedLabels. Unlike IsString, there are no special defaulting rules for IsLabel.

During typechecking, GHC will replace an occurrence of an overloaded label like #foo with fromLabel @"foo". This will have some type alpha and require the solution of a class constraint IsLabel "foo" alpha.

The intention is for IsLabel to be used to support overloaded record fields and perhaps anonymous records. Thus, it may be given instances for base datatypes (in particular (->)) in the future.

If RebindableSyntax is enabled, overloaded labels will be desugared using whatever fromLabel function is in scope, rather than always using GHC.OverloadedLabels.fromLabel.

When writing an overloaded label, there must be no space between the hash sign and the following identifier. The MagicHash extension makes use of postfix hash signs; if OverloadedLabels and MagicHash are both enabled then x#y means x# y, but if only OverloadedLabels is enabled then it means x #y. The UnboxedTuples extension makes (# a single lexeme, so when UnboxedTuples is enabled you must write a space between an opening parenthesis and an overloaded label. To avoid confusion, you are strongly encouraged to put a space before the hash when using OverloadedLabels.

When using OverloadedLabels (or other extensions that make use of hash signs) in a .hsc file (see Writing Haskell interfaces to C code: hsc2hs), the hash signs must be doubled (write ##foo instead of #foo) to avoid them being treated as hsc2hs directives.

Here is an extension of the record access example in Type-Level Literals showing how an overloaded label can be used as a record selector:

{-# LANGUAGE DataKinds, KindSignatures, MultiParamTypeClasses,
             FunctionalDependencies, FlexibleInstances,
             OverloadedLabels, ScopedTypeVariables #-}

import GHC.OverloadedLabels (IsLabel(..))
import GHC.TypeLits (Symbol)

data Label (l :: Symbol) = Get

class Has a l b | a l -> b where
  from :: a -> Label l -> b

data Point = Point Int Int deriving Show

instance Has Point "x" Int where from (Point x _) _ = x
instance Has Point "y" Int where from (Point _ y) _ = y

instance Has a l b => IsLabel l (a -> b) where
  fromLabel x = from x (Get :: Label l)

example = #x (Point 1 2)

Since GHC 9.6, any non-empty double quoted string can be used as a label. The restriction that the label must be a valid identifier has also been lifted.

Examples of newly allowed syntax:

  • Leading capital letters: #Foo equivalant to getLabel @”Foo”

  • Numeric characters: #3.14 equivalent to getLabel @”3.14”

  • Arbitrary strings: #”Hello, World!” equivalent to getLabel @”Hello, World!”

Here is an example of the more permissive use of this extension, available since GHC 9.6:

{-# LANGUAGE DataKinds             #-}
{-# LANGUAGE MultiParamTypeClasses #-}
{-# LANGUAGE OverloadedLabels      #-}
{-# LANGUAGE MagicHash             #-}

import Data.Foldable (traverse_)
import Data.Proxy (Proxy(..))
import GHC.OverloadedLabels (IsLabel(..))
import GHC.TypeLits (KnownSymbol, symbolVal)
import GHC.Prim (Addr#)

instance KnownSymbol symbol => IsLabel symbol String where
  fromLabel = symbolVal (Proxy :: Proxy symbol)

(#) :: String -> Int -> String
(#) _ i = show i

f :: Addr# -> Int -> String
f _ i = show i

main :: IO ()
main = traverse_ putStrLn
  [ #a
  , #number17
  , #do
  , #type
  , #Foo
  , #3
  , #199.4
  , #17a23b
  , #f'a'
  , #'a'
  , #'
  , #''notTHSplice
  , #...
  , #привет
  , #こんにちは
  , #"3"
  , #":"
  , #"Foo"
  , #"The quick brown fox"
  , #"\""
  , (++) #hello#world
  , (++) #"hello"#"world"
  , #"hello"# 1 -- equivalent to `(fromLabel @"hello") # 1`
  , f "hello"#2 -- equivalent to `f ("hello"# :: Addr#) 2`

See GHC Proposal #170 for more details.