6.5.6. Record field selector polymorphism

The module GHC.Records defines the following:

class HasField (x :: k) r a | x r -> a where
  getField :: r -> a

A HasField x r a constraint represents the fact that x is a field of type a belonging to a record type r. The getField method gives the record selector function.

This allows definitions that are polymorphic over record types with a specified field. For example, the following works with any record type that has a field name :: String:

foo :: HasField "name" r String => r -> String
foo r = reverse (getField @"name" r)

HasField is a magic built-in typeclass (similar to Coercible, for example). It is given special treatment by the constraint solver (see Solving HasField constraints). Users may define their own instances of HasField also (see Virtual record fields).

6.5.6.1. Solving HasField constraints

If the constraint solver encounters a constraint HasField x r a where r is a concrete datatype with a field x in scope, it will automatically solve the constraint using the field selector as the dictionary, unifying a with the type of the field if necessary. This happens irrespective of which extensions are enabled.

For example, if the following datatype is in scope

data Person = Person { name :: String }

the end result is rather like having an instance

instance HasField "name" Person String where
  getField = name

except that this instance is not actually generated anywhere, rather the constraint is solved directly by the constraint solver.

A field must be in scope for the corresponding HasField constraint to be solved. This retains the existing representation hiding mechanism, whereby a module may choose not to export a field, preventing client modules from accessing or updating it directly.

Solving HasField constraints depends on the field selector functions that are generated for each datatype definition:

  • If a record field does not have a selector function because its type would allow an existential variable to escape, the corresponding HasField constraint will not be solved. For example,

    {-# LANGUAGE ExistentialQuantification #-}
    data Exists t = forall x . MkExists { unExists :: t x }
    

    does not give rise to a selector unExists :: Exists t -> t x and we will not solve HasField "unExists" (Exists t) a automatically.

  • If a record field has a polymorphic type (and hence the selector function is higher-rank), the corresponding HasField constraint will not be solved, because doing so would violate the functional dependency on HasField and/or require impredicativity. For example,

    {-# LANGUAGE RankNTypes #-}
    data Higher = MkHigher { unHigher :: forall t . t -> t }
    

    gives rise to a selector unHigher :: Higher -> (forall t . t -> t) but does not lead to solution of the constraint HasField "unHigher" Higher a.

  • A record GADT may have a restricted type for a selector function, which may lead to additional unification when solving HasField constraints. For example,

    {-# LANGUAGE GADTs #-}
    data Gadt t where
      MkGadt :: { unGadt :: Maybe v } -> Gadt [v]
    

    gives rise to a selector unGadt :: Gadt [v] -> Maybe v, so the solver will reduce the constraint HasField "unGadt" (Gadt t) b by unifying t ~ [v] and b ~ Maybe v for some fresh metavariable v, rather as if we had an instance

    instance (t ~ [v], b ~ Maybe v) => HasField "unGadt" (Gadt t) b
    
  • If a record type has an old-fashioned datatype context, the HasField constraint will be reduced to solving the constraints from the context. For example,

    {-# LANGUAGE DatatypeContexts #-}
    data Eq a => Silly a = MkSilly { unSilly :: a }
    

    gives rise to a selector unSilly :: Eq a => Silly a -> a, so the solver will reduce the constraint HasField "unSilly" (Silly a) b to Eq a (and unify a with b), rather as if we had an instance

    instance (Eq a, a ~ b) => HasField "unSilly" (Silly a) b
    

6.5.6.2. Virtual record fields

Users may define their own instances of HasField, provided they do not conflict with the built-in constraint solving behaviour. This allows “virtual” record fields to be defined for datatypes that do not otherwise have them.

For example, this instance would make the name field of Person accessible using #fullname as well:

instance HasField "fullname" Person String where
  getField = name

More substantially, an anonymous records library could provide HasField instances for its anonymous records, and thus be compatible with the polymorphic record selectors introduced by this proposal. For example, something like this makes it possible to use getField to access Record values with the appropriate string in the type-level list of fields:

data Record (xs :: [(k, Type)]) where
  Nil  :: Record '[]
  Cons :: Proxy x -> a -> Record xs -> Record ('(x, a) ': xs)

instance HasField x (Record ('(x, a) ': xs)) a where
  getField (Cons _ v _) = v
instance HasField x (Record xs) a => HasField x (Record ('(y, b) ': xs)) a where
  getField (Cons _ _ r) = getField @x r

r :: Record '[ '("name", String) ]
r = Cons Proxy "R" Nil)

x = getField @"name" r

Since representations such as this can support field labels with kinds other than Symbol, the HasField class is poly-kinded (even though the built-in constraint solving works only at kind Symbol). In particular, this allows users to declare scoped field labels such as in the following example:

data PersonFields = Name

s :: Record '[ '(Name, String) ]
s = Cons Proxy "S" Nil

y = getField @Name s

In order to avoid conflicting with the built-in constraint solving, the following user-defined HasField instances are prohibited (in addition to the usual rules, such as the prohibition on type families appearing in instance heads):

  • HasField _ r _ where r is a variable;
  • HasField _ (T ...) _ if T is a data family (because it might have fields introduced later, using data instance declarations);
  • HasField x (T ...) _ if x is a variable and T has any fields at all (but this instance is permitted if T has no fields);
  • HasField "foo" (T ...) _ if T has a field foo (but this instance is permitted if it does not).

If a field has a higher-rank or existential type, the corresponding HasField constraint will not be solved automatically (as described above), but in the interests of simplicity we do not permit users to define their own instances either. If a field is not in scope, the corresponding instance is still prohibited, to avoid conflicts in downstream modules.