6.4.1. Data types with no constructors¶
Since: 6.8.1 Status: Included in
Allow definition of empty
EmptyDataDecls extension, GHC lets you declare a
data type with no constructors.
You only need to enable this extension if the language you’re using
is Haskell 98, in which a data type must have at least one constructor.
Haskell 2010 relaxed this rule to allow data types with no constructors,
EmptyDataDecls is enabled by default when the
language is Haskell 2010.
data S -- S :: Type data T a -- T :: Type -> Type
Syntactically, the declaration lacks the “= constrs” part. The type can be
parameterised over types of any kind, but if the kind is not
Type then an
explicit kind annotation must be used (see Explicitly-kinded quantification).
Such data types have only one value, namely bottom. Nevertheless, they can be useful when defining “phantom types”.
In conjunction with the
EmptyDataDeriving extension, empty data
declarations can also derive instances of standard type classes
(see Deriving instances for empty data types).