Safe Haskell | None |
---|---|
Language | Haskell2010 |
Synopsis
- module GHC.Toolchain.Monad
- module GHC.Toolchain.Lens
- error :: HasCallStack => [Char] -> a
- data Either a b
- concat :: Foldable t => t [a] -> [a]
- class Foldable (t :: Type -> Type) where
- foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> t a -> m
- foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> t a -> b
- foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> t a -> b
- foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> t a -> b
- foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> t a -> a
- foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> t a -> a
- null :: t a -> Bool
- length :: t a -> Int
- elem :: Eq a => a -> t a -> Bool
- maximum :: Ord a => t a -> a
- minimum :: Ord a => t a -> a
- sum :: Num a => t a -> a
- product :: Num a => t a -> a
- data Maybe a
- class Show a where
- even :: Integral a => a -> Bool
- data IO a
- (<$>) :: Functor f => (a -> b) -> f a -> f b
- class Enum a where
- succ :: a -> a
- pred :: a -> a
- toEnum :: Int -> a
- fromEnum :: a -> Int
- enumFrom :: a -> [a]
- enumFromThen :: a -> a -> [a]
- enumFromTo :: a -> a -> [a]
- enumFromThenTo :: a -> a -> a -> [a]
- data Char
- class (Real a, Enum a) => Integral a where
- type Rational = Ratio Integer
- ($) :: (a -> b) -> a -> b
- data Int
- type String = [Char]
- unzip :: [(a, b)] -> ([a], [b])
- class Eq a => Ord a where
- fst :: (a, b) -> a
- class Applicative m => Monad (m :: Type -> Type) where
- class Read a where
- uncurry :: (a -> b -> c) -> (a, b) -> c
- id :: a -> a
- head :: HasCallStack => [a] -> a
- class (Functor t, Foldable t) => Traversable (t :: Type -> Type) where
- traverse :: Applicative f => (a -> f b) -> t a -> f (t b)
- sequenceA :: Applicative f => t (f a) -> f (t a)
- mapM :: Monad m => (a -> m b) -> t a -> m (t b)
- sequence :: Monad m => t (m a) -> m (t a)
- type IOError = IOException
- getLine :: IO String
- putStrLn :: String -> IO ()
- mapM_ :: (Foldable t, Monad m) => (a -> m b) -> t a -> m ()
- sequence_ :: (Foldable t, Monad m) => t (m a) -> m ()
- filter :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [a]
- const :: a -> b -> a
- cycle :: HasCallStack => [a] -> [a]
- (++) :: [a] -> [a] -> [a]
- seq :: a -> b -> b
- zip :: [a] -> [b] -> [(a, b)]
- print :: Show a => a -> IO ()
- otherwise :: Bool
- map :: (a -> b) -> [a] -> [b]
- class Num a where
- class Num a => Fractional a where
- (/) :: a -> a -> a
- recip :: a -> a
- fromRational :: Rational -> a
- class Eq a where
- class Functor (f :: Type -> Type) where
- class Monad m => MonadFail (m :: Type -> Type) where
- fromIntegral :: (Integral a, Num b) => a -> b
- realToFrac :: (Real a, Fractional b) => a -> b
- class (Num a, Ord a) => Real a where
- toRational :: a -> Rational
- class Semigroup a where
- (<>) :: a -> a -> a
- class Semigroup a => Monoid a where
- class Functor f => Applicative (f :: Type -> Type) where
- class Bounded a where
- class Fractional a => Floating a where
- class (RealFrac a, Floating a) => RealFloat a where
- floatRadix :: a -> Integer
- floatDigits :: a -> Int
- floatRange :: a -> (Int, Int)
- decodeFloat :: a -> (Integer, Int)
- encodeFloat :: Integer -> Int -> a
- exponent :: a -> Int
- significand :: a -> a
- scaleFloat :: Int -> a -> a
- isNaN :: a -> Bool
- isInfinite :: a -> Bool
- isDenormalized :: a -> Bool
- isNegativeZero :: a -> Bool
- isIEEE :: a -> Bool
- atan2 :: a -> a -> a
- class (Real a, Fractional a) => RealFrac a where
- data Bool
- data Double
- data Float
- data Integer
- data Ordering
- class a ~# b => (a :: k) ~ (b :: k)
- data Word
- (^) :: (Num a, Integral b) => a -> b -> a
- (&&) :: Bool -> Bool -> Bool
- (||) :: Bool -> Bool -> Bool
- not :: Bool -> Bool
- errorWithoutStackTrace :: [Char] -> a
- undefined :: HasCallStack => a
- (=<<) :: Monad m => (a -> m b) -> m a -> m b
- (.) :: (b -> c) -> (a -> b) -> a -> c
- flip :: (a -> b -> c) -> b -> a -> c
- ($!) :: (a -> b) -> a -> b
- until :: (a -> Bool) -> (a -> a) -> a -> a
- asTypeOf :: a -> a -> a
- subtract :: Num a => a -> a -> a
- maybe :: b -> (a -> b) -> Maybe a -> b
- tail :: HasCallStack => [a] -> [a]
- last :: HasCallStack => [a] -> a
- init :: HasCallStack => [a] -> [a]
- scanl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> [a] -> [b]
- scanl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> [a] -> [a]
- scanr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> [a] -> [b]
- scanr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> [a] -> [a]
- iterate :: (a -> a) -> a -> [a]
- repeat :: a -> [a]
- replicate :: Int -> a -> [a]
- takeWhile :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [a]
- dropWhile :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [a]
- take :: Int -> [a] -> [a]
- drop :: Int -> [a] -> [a]
- splitAt :: Int -> [a] -> ([a], [a])
- span :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> ([a], [a])
- break :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> ([a], [a])
- reverse :: [a] -> [a]
- and :: Foldable t => t Bool -> Bool
- or :: Foldable t => t Bool -> Bool
- any :: Foldable t => (a -> Bool) -> t a -> Bool
- all :: Foldable t => (a -> Bool) -> t a -> Bool
- notElem :: (Foldable t, Eq a) => a -> t a -> Bool
- lookup :: Eq a => a -> [(a, b)] -> Maybe b
- concatMap :: Foldable t => (a -> [b]) -> t a -> [b]
- (!!) :: HasCallStack => [a] -> Int -> a
- zip3 :: [a] -> [b] -> [c] -> [(a, b, c)]
- zipWith :: (a -> b -> c) -> [a] -> [b] -> [c]
- zipWith3 :: (a -> b -> c -> d) -> [a] -> [b] -> [c] -> [d]
- unzip3 :: [(a, b, c)] -> ([a], [b], [c])
- type ShowS = String -> String
- shows :: Show a => a -> ShowS
- showChar :: Char -> ShowS
- showString :: String -> ShowS
- showParen :: Bool -> ShowS -> ShowS
- snd :: (a, b) -> b
- curry :: ((a, b) -> c) -> a -> b -> c
- odd :: Integral a => a -> Bool
- (^^) :: (Fractional a, Integral b) => a -> b -> a
- gcd :: Integral a => a -> a -> a
- lcm :: Integral a => a -> a -> a
- type ReadS a = String -> [(a, String)]
- lex :: ReadS String
- readParen :: Bool -> ReadS a -> ReadS a
- either :: (a -> c) -> (b -> c) -> Either a b -> c
- reads :: Read a => ReadS a
- read :: Read a => String -> a
- lines :: String -> [String]
- unlines :: [String] -> String
- words :: String -> [String]
- unwords :: [String] -> String
- userError :: String -> IOError
- type FilePath = String
- ioError :: IOError -> IO a
- putChar :: Char -> IO ()
- putStr :: String -> IO ()
- getChar :: IO Char
- getContents :: IO String
- interact :: (String -> String) -> IO ()
- readLn :: Read a => IO a
- readIO :: Read a => String -> IO a
- (<|>) :: Alternative f => f a -> f a -> f a
Documentation
module GHC.Toolchain.Monad
module GHC.Toolchain.Lens
The Either
type represents values with two possibilities: a value of
type
is either Either
a b
or Left
a
.Right
b
The Either
type is sometimes used to represent a value which is
either correct or an error; by convention, the Left
constructor is
used to hold an error value and the Right
constructor is used to
hold a correct value (mnemonic: "right" also means "correct").
Examples
The type
is the type of values which can be either
a Either
String
Int
String
or an Int
. The Left
constructor can be used only on
String
s, and the Right
constructor can be used only on Int
s:
>>>
let s = Left "foo" :: Either String Int
>>>
s
Left "foo">>>
let n = Right 3 :: Either String Int
>>>
n
Right 3>>>
:type s
s :: Either String Int>>>
:type n
n :: Either String Int
The fmap
from our Functor
instance will ignore Left
values, but
will apply the supplied function to values contained in a Right
:
>>>
let s = Left "foo" :: Either String Int
>>>
let n = Right 3 :: Either String Int
>>>
fmap (*2) s
Left "foo">>>
fmap (*2) n
Right 6
The Monad
instance for Either
allows us to chain together multiple
actions which may fail, and fail overall if any of the individual
steps failed. First we'll write a function that can either parse an
Int
from a Char
, or fail.
>>>
import Data.Char ( digitToInt, isDigit )
>>>
:{
let parseEither :: Char -> Either String Int parseEither c | isDigit c = Right (digitToInt c) | otherwise = Left "parse error">>>
:}
The following should work, since both '1'
and '2'
can be
parsed as Int
s.
>>>
:{
let parseMultiple :: Either String Int parseMultiple = do x <- parseEither '1' y <- parseEither '2' return (x + y)>>>
:}
>>>
parseMultiple
Right 3
But the following should fail overall, since the first operation where
we attempt to parse 'm'
as an Int
will fail:
>>>
:{
let parseMultiple :: Either String Int parseMultiple = do x <- parseEither 'm' y <- parseEither '2' return (x + y)>>>
:}
>>>
parseMultiple
Left "parse error"
Instances
Bifoldable Either | Since: base-4.10.0.0 | ||||
Bifoldable1 Either | |||||
Bifunctor Either | Since: base-4.8.0.0 | ||||
Bitraversable Either | Since: base-4.10.0.0 | ||||
Defined in Data.Bitraversable bitraverse :: Applicative f => (a -> f c) -> (b -> f d) -> Either a b -> f (Either c d) Source # | |||||
Eq2 Either | Since: base-4.9.0.0 | ||||
Ord2 Either | Since: base-4.9.0.0 | ||||
Defined in Data.Functor.Classes | |||||
Read2 Either | Since: base-4.9.0.0 | ||||
Defined in Data.Functor.Classes liftReadsPrec2 :: (Int -> ReadS a) -> ReadS [a] -> (Int -> ReadS b) -> ReadS [b] -> Int -> ReadS (Either a b) Source # liftReadList2 :: (Int -> ReadS a) -> ReadS [a] -> (Int -> ReadS b) -> ReadS [b] -> ReadS [Either a b] Source # liftReadPrec2 :: ReadPrec a -> ReadPrec [a] -> ReadPrec b -> ReadPrec [b] -> ReadPrec (Either a b) Source # liftReadListPrec2 :: ReadPrec a -> ReadPrec [a] -> ReadPrec b -> ReadPrec [b] -> ReadPrec [Either a b] Source # | |||||
Show2 Either | Since: base-4.9.0.0 | ||||
NFData2 Either | |||||
Defined in Control.DeepSeq | |||||
Generic1 (Either a :: Type -> Type) | |||||
Defined in GHC.Generics
| |||||
(Lift a, Lift b) => Lift (Either a b :: Type) | |||||
MonadFix (Either e) | Since: base-4.3.0.0 | ||||
Foldable (Either a) | Since: base-4.7.0.0 | ||||
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => Either a m -> m Source # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a0 -> m) -> Either a a0 -> m Source # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a0 -> m) -> Either a a0 -> m Source # foldr :: (a0 -> b -> b) -> b -> Either a a0 -> b Source # foldr' :: (a0 -> b -> b) -> b -> Either a a0 -> b Source # foldl :: (b -> a0 -> b) -> b -> Either a a0 -> b Source # foldl' :: (b -> a0 -> b) -> b -> Either a a0 -> b Source # foldr1 :: (a0 -> a0 -> a0) -> Either a a0 -> a0 Source # foldl1 :: (a0 -> a0 -> a0) -> Either a a0 -> a0 Source # toList :: Either a a0 -> [a0] Source # null :: Either a a0 -> Bool Source # length :: Either a a0 -> Int Source # elem :: Eq a0 => a0 -> Either a a0 -> Bool Source # maximum :: Ord a0 => Either a a0 -> a0 Source # minimum :: Ord a0 => Either a a0 -> a0 Source # | |||||
Eq a => Eq1 (Either a) | Since: base-4.9.0.0 | ||||
Ord a => Ord1 (Either a) | Since: base-4.9.0.0 | ||||
Defined in Data.Functor.Classes | |||||
Read a => Read1 (Either a) | Since: base-4.9.0.0 | ||||
Defined in Data.Functor.Classes liftReadsPrec :: (Int -> ReadS a0) -> ReadS [a0] -> Int -> ReadS (Either a a0) Source # liftReadList :: (Int -> ReadS a0) -> ReadS [a0] -> ReadS [Either a a0] Source # liftReadPrec :: ReadPrec a0 -> ReadPrec [a0] -> ReadPrec (Either a a0) Source # liftReadListPrec :: ReadPrec a0 -> ReadPrec [a0] -> ReadPrec [Either a a0] Source # | |||||
Show a => Show1 (Either a) | Since: base-4.9.0.0 | ||||
Traversable (Either a) | Since: base-4.7.0.0 | ||||
Defined in Data.Traversable | |||||
Applicative (Either e) | Since: base-3.0 | ||||
Defined in Data.Either | |||||
Functor (Either a) | Since: base-3.0 | ||||
Monad (Either e) | Since: base-4.4.0.0 | ||||
NFData a => NFData1 (Either a) | |||||
Defined in Control.DeepSeq | |||||
(Data a, Data b) => Data (Either a b) | Since: base-4.0.0.0 | ||||
Defined in Data.Data gfoldl :: (forall d b0. Data d => c (d -> b0) -> d -> c b0) -> (forall g. g -> c g) -> Either a b -> c (Either a b) Source # gunfold :: (forall b0 r. Data b0 => c (b0 -> r) -> c r) -> (forall r. r -> c r) -> Constr -> c (Either a b) Source # toConstr :: Either a b -> Constr Source # dataTypeOf :: Either a b -> DataType Source # dataCast1 :: Typeable t => (forall d. Data d => c (t d)) -> Maybe (c (Either a b)) Source # dataCast2 :: Typeable t => (forall d e. (Data d, Data e) => c (t d e)) -> Maybe (c (Either a b)) Source # gmapT :: (forall b0. Data b0 => b0 -> b0) -> Either a b -> Either a b Source # gmapQl :: (r -> r' -> r) -> r -> (forall d. Data d => d -> r') -> Either a b -> r Source # gmapQr :: forall r r'. (r' -> r -> r) -> r -> (forall d. Data d => d -> r') -> Either a b -> r Source # gmapQ :: (forall d. Data d => d -> u) -> Either a b -> [u] Source # gmapQi :: Int -> (forall d. Data d => d -> u) -> Either a b -> u Source # gmapM :: Monad m => (forall d. Data d => d -> m d) -> Either a b -> m (Either a b) Source # gmapMp :: MonadPlus m => (forall d. Data d => d -> m d) -> Either a b -> m (Either a b) Source # gmapMo :: MonadPlus m => (forall d. Data d => d -> m d) -> Either a b -> m (Either a b) Source # | |||||
Semigroup (Either a b) | Since: base-4.9.0.0 | ||||
Generic (Either a b) | |||||
Defined in GHC.Generics
| |||||
(Read a, Read b) => Read (Either a b) | Since: base-3.0 | ||||
(Show a, Show b) => Show (Either a b) | Since: base-3.0 | ||||
(NFData a, NFData b) => NFData (Either a b) | |||||
Defined in Control.DeepSeq | |||||
(Eq a, Eq b) => Eq (Either a b) | Since: base-2.1 | ||||
(Ord a, Ord b) => Ord (Either a b) | Since: base-2.1 | ||||
type Rep1 (Either a :: Type -> Type) | Since: base-4.6.0.0 | ||||
Defined in GHC.Generics type Rep1 (Either a :: Type -> Type) = D1 ('MetaData "Either" "Data.Either" "base" 'False) (C1 ('MetaCons "Left" 'PrefixI 'False) (S1 ('MetaSel ('Nothing :: Maybe Symbol) 'NoSourceUnpackedness 'NoSourceStrictness 'DecidedLazy) (Rec0 a)) :+: C1 ('MetaCons "Right" 'PrefixI 'False) (S1 ('MetaSel ('Nothing :: Maybe Symbol) 'NoSourceUnpackedness 'NoSourceStrictness 'DecidedLazy) Par1)) | |||||
type Rep (Either a b) | Since: base-4.6.0.0 | ||||
Defined in GHC.Generics type Rep (Either a b) = D1 ('MetaData "Either" "Data.Either" "base" 'False) (C1 ('MetaCons "Left" 'PrefixI 'False) (S1 ('MetaSel ('Nothing :: Maybe Symbol) 'NoSourceUnpackedness 'NoSourceStrictness 'DecidedLazy) (Rec0 a)) :+: C1 ('MetaCons "Right" 'PrefixI 'False) (S1 ('MetaSel ('Nothing :: Maybe Symbol) 'NoSourceUnpackedness 'NoSourceStrictness 'DecidedLazy) (Rec0 b))) |
concat :: Foldable t => t [a] -> [a] Source #
The concatenation of all the elements of a container of lists.
Examples
Basic usage:
>>>
concat (Just [1, 2, 3])
[1,2,3]
>>>
concat (Left 42)
[]
>>>
concat [[1, 2, 3], [4, 5], [6], []]
[1,2,3,4,5,6]
class Foldable (t :: Type -> Type) where Source #
The Foldable class represents data structures that can be reduced to a summary value one element at a time. Strict left-associative folds are a good fit for space-efficient reduction, while lazy right-associative folds are a good fit for corecursive iteration, or for folds that short-circuit after processing an initial subsequence of the structure's elements.
Instances can be derived automatically by enabling the DeriveFoldable
extension. For example, a derived instance for a binary tree might be:
{-# LANGUAGE DeriveFoldable #-} data Tree a = Empty | Leaf a | Node (Tree a) a (Tree a) deriving Foldable
A more detailed description can be found in the Overview section of Data.Foldable.
For the class laws see the Laws section of Data.Foldable.
foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> t a -> m Source #
Map each element of the structure into a monoid, and combine the
results with (
. This fold is right-associative and lazy in the
accumulator. For strict left-associative folds consider <>
)foldMap'
instead.
Examples
Basic usage:
>>>
foldMap Sum [1, 3, 5]
Sum {getSum = 9}
>>>
foldMap Product [1, 3, 5]
Product {getProduct = 15}
>>>
foldMap (replicate 3) [1, 2, 3]
[1,1,1,2,2,2,3,3,3]
When a Monoid's (
is lazy in its second argument, <>
)foldMap
can
return a result even from an unbounded structure. For example, lazy
accumulation enables Data.ByteString.Builder to efficiently serialise
large data structures and produce the output incrementally:
>>>
import qualified Data.ByteString.Lazy as L
>>>
import qualified Data.ByteString.Builder as B
>>>
let bld :: Int -> B.Builder; bld i = B.intDec i <> B.word8 0x20
>>>
let lbs = B.toLazyByteString $ foldMap bld [0..]
>>>
L.take 64 lbs
"0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24"
foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> t a -> b Source #
Right-associative fold of a structure, lazy in the accumulator.
In the case of lists, foldr
, when applied to a binary operator, a
starting value (typically the right-identity of the operator), and a
list, reduces the list using the binary operator, from right to left:
foldr f z [x1, x2, ..., xn] == x1 `f` (x2 `f` ... (xn `f` z)...)
Note that since the head of the resulting expression is produced by an
application of the operator to the first element of the list, given an
operator lazy in its right argument, foldr
can produce a terminating
expression from an unbounded list.
For a general Foldable
structure this should be semantically identical
to,
foldr f z =foldr
f z .toList
Examples
Basic usage:
>>>
foldr (||) False [False, True, False]
True
>>>
foldr (||) False []
False
>>>
foldr (\c acc -> acc ++ [c]) "foo" ['a', 'b', 'c', 'd']
"foodcba"
Infinite structures
⚠️ Applying foldr
to infinite structures usually doesn't terminate.
It may still terminate under one of the following conditions:
- the folding function is short-circuiting
- the folding function is lazy on its second argument
Short-circuiting
(
short-circuits on ||
)True
values, so the following terminates
because there is a True
value finitely far from the left side:
>>>
foldr (||) False (True : repeat False)
True
But the following doesn't terminate:
>>>
foldr (||) False (repeat False ++ [True])
* Hangs forever *
Laziness in the second argument
Applying foldr
to infinite structures terminates when the operator is
lazy in its second argument (the initial accumulator is never used in
this case, and so could be left undefined
, but []
is more clear):
>>>
take 5 $ foldr (\i acc -> i : fmap (+3) acc) [] (repeat 1)
[1,4,7,10,13]
foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> t a -> b Source #
Left-associative fold of a structure, lazy in the accumulator. This is rarely what you want, but can work well for structures with efficient right-to-left sequencing and an operator that is lazy in its left argument.
In the case of lists, foldl
, when applied to a binary operator, a
starting value (typically the left-identity of the operator), and a
list, reduces the list using the binary operator, from left to right:
foldl f z [x1, x2, ..., xn] == (...((z `f` x1) `f` x2) `f`...) `f` xn
Note that to produce the outermost application of the operator the
entire input list must be traversed. Like all left-associative folds,
foldl
will diverge if given an infinite list.
If you want an efficient strict left-fold, you probably want to use
foldl'
instead of foldl
. The reason for this is that the latter
does not force the inner results (e.g. z `f` x1
in the above
example) before applying them to the operator (e.g. to (`f` x2)
).
This results in a thunk chain O(n) elements long, which then must be
evaluated from the outside-in.
For a general Foldable
structure this should be semantically identical
to:
foldl f z =foldl
f z .toList
Examples
The first example is a strict fold, which in practice is best performed
with foldl'
.
>>>
foldl (+) 42 [1,2,3,4]
52
Though the result below is lazy, the input is reversed before prepending it to the initial accumulator, so corecursion begins only after traversing the entire input string.
>>>
foldl (\acc c -> c : acc) "abcd" "efgh"
"hgfeabcd"
A left fold of a structure that is infinite on the right cannot terminate, even when for any finite input the fold just returns the initial accumulator:
>>>
foldl (\a _ -> a) 0 $ repeat 1
* Hangs forever *
WARNING: When it comes to lists, you always want to use either foldl'
or foldr
instead.
foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> t a -> b Source #
Left-associative fold of a structure but with strict application of the operator.
This ensures that each step of the fold is forced to Weak Head Normal
Form before being applied, avoiding the collection of thunks that would
otherwise occur. This is often what you want to strictly reduce a
finite structure to a single strict result (e.g. sum
).
For a general Foldable
structure this should be semantically identical
to,
foldl' f z =foldl'
f z .toList
Since: base-4.6.0.0
foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> t a -> a Source #
A variant of foldr
that has no base case,
and thus may only be applied to non-empty structures.
This function is non-total and will raise a runtime exception if the structure happens to be empty.
Examples
Basic usage:
>>>
foldr1 (+) [1..4]
10
>>>
foldr1 (+) []
Exception: Prelude.foldr1: empty list
>>>
foldr1 (+) Nothing
*** Exception: foldr1: empty structure
>>>
foldr1 (-) [1..4]
-2
>>>
foldr1 (&&) [True, False, True, True]
False
>>>
foldr1 (||) [False, False, True, True]
True
>>>
foldr1 (+) [1..]
* Hangs forever *
foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> t a -> a Source #
A variant of foldl
that has no base case,
and thus may only be applied to non-empty structures.
This function is non-total and will raise a runtime exception if the structure happens to be empty.
foldl1
f =foldl1
f .toList
Examples
Basic usage:
>>>
foldl1 (+) [1..4]
10
>>>
foldl1 (+) []
*** Exception: Prelude.foldl1: empty list
>>>
foldl1 (+) Nothing
*** Exception: foldl1: empty structure
>>>
foldl1 (-) [1..4]
-8
>>>
foldl1 (&&) [True, False, True, True]
False
>>>
foldl1 (||) [False, False, True, True]
True
>>>
foldl1 (+) [1..]
* Hangs forever *
Test whether the structure is empty. The default implementation is Left-associative and lazy in both the initial element and the accumulator. Thus optimised for structures where the first element can be accessed in constant time. Structures where this is not the case should have a non-default implementation.
Examples
Basic usage:
>>>
null []
True
>>>
null [1]
False
null
is expected to terminate even for infinite structures.
The default implementation terminates provided the structure
is bounded on the left (there is a leftmost element).
>>>
null [1..]
False
Since: base-4.8.0.0
Returns the size/length of a finite structure as an Int
. The
default implementation just counts elements starting with the leftmost.
Instances for structures that can compute the element count faster
than via element-by-element counting, should provide a specialised
implementation.
Examples
Basic usage:
>>>
length []
0
>>>
length ['a', 'b', 'c']
3>>>
length [1..]
* Hangs forever *
Since: base-4.8.0.0
elem :: Eq a => a -> t a -> Bool infix 4 Source #
Does the element occur in the structure?
Note: elem
is often used in infix form.
Examples
Basic usage:
>>>
3 `elem` []
False
>>>
3 `elem` [1,2]
False
>>>
3 `elem` [1,2,3,4,5]
True
For infinite structures, the default implementation of elem
terminates if the sought-after value exists at a finite distance
from the left side of the structure:
>>>
3 `elem` [1..]
True
>>>
3 `elem` ([4..] ++ [3])
* Hangs forever *
Since: base-4.8.0.0
maximum :: Ord a => t a -> a Source #
The largest element of a non-empty structure.
This function is non-total and will raise a runtime exception if the structure happens to be empty. A structure that supports random access and maintains its elements in order should provide a specialised implementation to return the maximum in faster than linear time.
Examples
Basic usage:
>>>
maximum [1..10]
10
>>>
maximum []
*** Exception: Prelude.maximum: empty list
>>>
maximum Nothing
*** Exception: maximum: empty structure
WARNING: This function is partial for possibly-empty structures like lists.
Since: base-4.8.0.0
minimum :: Ord a => t a -> a Source #
The least element of a non-empty structure.
This function is non-total and will raise a runtime exception if the structure happens to be empty. A structure that supports random access and maintains its elements in order should provide a specialised implementation to return the minimum in faster than linear time.
Examples
Basic usage:
>>>
minimum [1..10]
1
>>>
minimum []
*** Exception: Prelude.minimum: empty list
>>>
minimum Nothing
*** Exception: minimum: empty structure
WARNING: This function is partial for possibly-empty structures like lists.
Since: base-4.8.0.0
sum :: Num a => t a -> a Source #
The sum
function computes the sum of the numbers of a structure.
Examples
Basic usage:
>>>
sum []
0
>>>
sum [42]
42
>>>
sum [1..10]
55
>>>
sum [4.1, 2.0, 1.7]
7.8
>>>
sum [1..]
* Hangs forever *
Since: base-4.8.0.0
product :: Num a => t a -> a Source #
The product
function computes the product of the numbers of a
structure.
Examples
Basic usage:
>>>
product []
1
>>>
product [42]
42
>>>
product [1..10]
3628800
>>>
product [4.1, 2.0, 1.7]
13.939999999999998
>>>
product [1..]
* Hangs forever *
Since: base-4.8.0.0
Instances
Foldable ZipList | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Defined in Control.Applicative fold :: Monoid m => ZipList m -> m Source # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> ZipList a -> m Source # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> ZipList a -> m Source # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> ZipList a -> b Source # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> ZipList a -> b Source # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> ZipList a -> b Source # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> ZipList a -> b Source # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> ZipList a -> a Source # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> ZipList a -> a Source # toList :: ZipList a -> [a] Source # null :: ZipList a -> Bool Source # length :: ZipList a -> Int Source # elem :: Eq a => a -> ZipList a -> Bool Source # maximum :: Ord a => ZipList a -> a Source # minimum :: Ord a => ZipList a -> a Source # | |
Foldable Complex | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Complex fold :: Monoid m => Complex m -> m Source # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Complex a -> m Source # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Complex a -> m Source # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Complex a -> b Source # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Complex a -> b Source # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Complex a -> b Source # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Complex a -> b Source # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Complex a -> a Source # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Complex a -> a Source # toList :: Complex a -> [a] Source # null :: Complex a -> Bool Source # length :: Complex a -> Int Source # elem :: Eq a => a -> Complex a -> Bool Source # maximum :: Ord a => Complex a -> a Source # minimum :: Ord a => Complex a -> a Source # | |
Foldable Identity | Since: base-4.8.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Functor.Identity fold :: Monoid m => Identity m -> m Source # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Identity a -> m Source # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Identity a -> m Source # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Identity a -> b Source # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Identity a -> b Source # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Identity a -> b Source # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Identity a -> b Source # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Identity a -> a Source # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Identity a -> a Source # toList :: Identity a -> [a] Source # null :: Identity a -> Bool Source # length :: Identity a -> Int Source # elem :: Eq a => a -> Identity a -> Bool Source # maximum :: Ord a => Identity a -> a Source # minimum :: Ord a => Identity a -> a Source # | |
Foldable First | Since: base-4.8.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => First m -> m Source # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> First a -> m Source # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> First a -> m Source # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> First a -> b Source # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> First a -> b Source # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> First a -> b Source # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> First a -> b Source # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> First a -> a Source # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> First a -> a Source # toList :: First a -> [a] Source # null :: First a -> Bool Source # length :: First a -> Int Source # elem :: Eq a => a -> First a -> Bool Source # maximum :: Ord a => First a -> a Source # minimum :: Ord a => First a -> a Source # | |
Foldable Last | Since: base-4.8.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => Last m -> m Source # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Last a -> m Source # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Last a -> m Source # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Last a -> b Source # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Last a -> b Source # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Last a -> b Source # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Last a -> b Source # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Last a -> a Source # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Last a -> a Source # toList :: Last a -> [a] Source # null :: Last a -> Bool Source # length :: Last a -> Int Source # elem :: Eq a => a -> Last a -> Bool Source # maximum :: Ord a => Last a -> a Source # minimum :: Ord a => Last a -> a Source # | |
Foldable Down | Since: base-4.12.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => Down m -> m Source # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Down a -> m Source # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Down a -> m Source # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Down a -> b Source # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Down a -> b Source # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Down a -> b Source # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Down a -> b Source # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Down a -> a Source # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Down a -> a Source # toList :: Down a -> [a] Source # null :: Down a -> Bool Source # length :: Down a -> Int Source # elem :: Eq a => a -> Down a -> Bool Source # maximum :: Ord a => Down a -> a Source # minimum :: Ord a => Down a -> a Source # | |
Foldable First | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Semigroup fold :: Monoid m => First m -> m Source # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> First a -> m Source # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> First a -> m Source # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> First a -> b Source # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> First a -> b Source # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> First a -> b Source # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> First a -> b Source # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> First a -> a Source # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> First a -> a Source # toList :: First a -> [a] Source # null :: First a -> Bool Source # length :: First a -> Int Source # elem :: Eq a => a -> First a -> Bool Source # maximum :: Ord a => First a -> a Source # minimum :: Ord a => First a -> a Source # | |
Foldable Last | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Semigroup fold :: Monoid m => Last m -> m Source # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Last a -> m Source # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Last a -> m Source # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Last a -> b Source # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Last a -> b Source # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Last a -> b Source # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Last a -> b Source # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Last a -> a Source # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Last a -> a Source # toList :: Last a -> [a] Source # null :: Last a -> Bool Source # length :: Last a -> Int Source # elem :: Eq a => a -> Last a -> Bool Source # maximum :: Ord a => Last a -> a Source # minimum :: Ord a => Last a -> a Source # | |
Foldable Max | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Semigroup fold :: Monoid m => Max m -> m Source # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Max a -> m Source # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Max a -> m Source # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Max a -> b Source # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Max a -> b Source # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Max a -> b Source # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Max a -> b Source # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Max a -> a Source # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Max a -> a Source # toList :: Max a -> [a] Source # null :: Max a -> Bool Source # length :: Max a -> Int Source # elem :: Eq a => a -> Max a -> Bool Source # maximum :: Ord a => Max a -> a Source # minimum :: Ord a => Max a -> a Source # | |
Foldable Min | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Semigroup fold :: Monoid m => Min m -> m Source # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Min a -> m Source # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Min a -> m Source # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Min a -> b Source # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Min a -> b Source # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Min a -> b Source # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Min a -> b Source # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Min a -> a Source # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Min a -> a Source # toList :: Min a -> [a] Source # null :: Min a -> Bool Source # length :: Min a -> Int Source # elem :: Eq a => a -> Min a -> Bool Source # maximum :: Ord a => Min a -> a Source # minimum :: Ord a => Min a -> a Source # | |
Foldable Dual | Since: base-4.8.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => Dual m -> m Source # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Dual a -> m Source # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Dual a -> m Source # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Dual a -> b Source # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Dual a -> b Source # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Dual a -> b Source # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Dual a -> b Source # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Dual a -> a Source # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Dual a -> a Source # toList :: Dual a -> [a] Source # null :: Dual a -> Bool Source # length :: Dual a -> Int Source # elem :: Eq a => a -> Dual a -> Bool Source # maximum :: Ord a => Dual a -> a Source # minimum :: Ord a => Dual a -> a Source # | |
Foldable Product | Since: base-4.8.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => Product m -> m Source # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Product a -> m Source # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Product a -> m Source # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Product a -> b Source # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Product a -> b Source # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Product a -> b Source # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Product a -> b Source # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Product a -> a Source # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Product a -> a Source # toList :: Product a -> [a] Source # null :: Product a -> Bool Source # length :: Product a -> Int Source # elem :: Eq a => a -> Product a -> Bool Source # maximum :: Ord a => Product a -> a Source # minimum :: Ord a => Product a -> a Source # | |
Foldable Sum | Since: base-4.8.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => Sum m -> m Source # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Sum a -> m Source # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Sum a -> m Source # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Sum a -> b Source # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Sum a -> b Source # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Sum a -> b Source # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Sum a -> b Source # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Sum a -> a Source # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Sum a -> a Source # toList :: Sum a -> [a] Source # null :: Sum a -> Bool Source # length :: Sum a -> Int Source # elem :: Eq a => a -> Sum a -> Bool Source # maximum :: Ord a => Sum a -> a Source # minimum :: Ord a => Sum a -> a Source # | |
Foldable NonEmpty | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => NonEmpty m -> m Source # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> NonEmpty a -> m Source # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> NonEmpty a -> m Source # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> NonEmpty a -> b Source # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> NonEmpty a -> b Source # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> NonEmpty a -> b Source # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> NonEmpty a -> b Source # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> NonEmpty a -> a Source # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> NonEmpty a -> a Source # toList :: NonEmpty a -> [a] Source # null :: NonEmpty a -> Bool Source # length :: NonEmpty a -> Int Source # elem :: Eq a => a -> NonEmpty a -> Bool Source # maximum :: Ord a => NonEmpty a -> a Source # minimum :: Ord a => NonEmpty a -> a Source # | |
Foldable Par1 | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => Par1 m -> m Source # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Par1 a -> m Source # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Par1 a -> m Source # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Par1 a -> b Source # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Par1 a -> b Source # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Par1 a -> b Source # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Par1 a -> b Source # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Par1 a -> a Source # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Par1 a -> a Source # toList :: Par1 a -> [a] Source # null :: Par1 a -> Bool Source # length :: Par1 a -> Int Source # elem :: Eq a => a -> Par1 a -> Bool Source # maximum :: Ord a => Par1 a -> a Source # minimum :: Ord a => Par1 a -> a Source # | |
Foldable IntMap | |
Defined in Data.IntMap.Internal fold :: Monoid m => IntMap m -> m Source # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> IntMap a -> m Source # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> IntMap a -> m Source # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> IntMap a -> b Source # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> IntMap a -> b Source # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> IntMap a -> b Source # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> IntMap a -> b Source # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> IntMap a -> a Source # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> IntMap a -> a Source # toList :: IntMap a -> [a] Source # null :: IntMap a -> Bool Source # length :: IntMap a -> Int Source # elem :: Eq a => a -> IntMap a -> Bool Source # maximum :: Ord a => IntMap a -> a Source # minimum :: Ord a => IntMap a -> a Source # | |
Foldable Digit | |
Defined in Data.Sequence.Internal fold :: Monoid m => Digit m -> m Source # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Digit a -> m Source # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Digit a -> m Source # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Digit a -> b Source # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Digit a -> b Source # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Digit a -> b Source # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Digit a -> b Source # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Digit a -> a Source # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Digit a -> a Source # toList :: Digit a -> [a] Source # null :: Digit a -> Bool Source # length :: Digit a -> Int Source # elem :: Eq a => a -> Digit a -> Bool Source # maximum :: Ord a => Digit a -> a Source # minimum :: Ord a => Digit a -> a Source # | |
Foldable Elem | |
Defined in Data.Sequence.Internal fold :: Monoid m => Elem m -> m Source # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Elem a -> m Source # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Elem a -> m Source # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Elem a -> b Source # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Elem a -> b Source # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Elem a -> b Source # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Elem a -> b Source # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Elem a -> a Source # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Elem a -> a Source # toList :: Elem a -> [a] Source # null :: Elem a -> Bool Source # length :: Elem a -> Int Source # elem :: Eq a => a -> Elem a -> Bool Source # maximum :: Ord a => Elem a -> a Source # minimum :: Ord a => Elem a -> a Source # | |
Foldable FingerTree | |
Defined in Data.Sequence.Internal fold :: Monoid m => FingerTree m -> m Source # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> FingerTree a -> m Source # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> FingerTree a -> m Source # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> FingerTree a -> b Source # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> FingerTree a -> b Source # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> FingerTree a -> b Source # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> FingerTree a -> b Source # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> FingerTree a -> a Source # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> FingerTree a -> a Source # toList :: FingerTree a -> [a] Source # null :: FingerTree a -> Bool Source # length :: FingerTree a -> Int Source # elem :: Eq a => a -> FingerTree a -> Bool Source # maximum :: Ord a => FingerTree a -> a Source # minimum :: Ord a => FingerTree a -> a Source # | |
Foldable Node | |
Defined in Data.Sequence.Internal fold :: Monoid m => Node m -> m Source # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Node a -> m Source # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Node a -> m Source # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Node a -> b Source # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Node a -> b Source # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Node a -> b Source # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Node a -> b Source # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Node a -> a Source # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Node a -> a Source # toList :: Node a -> [a] Source # null :: Node a -> Bool Source # length :: Node a -> Int Source # elem :: Eq a => a -> Node a -> Bool Source # maximum :: Ord a => Node a -> a Source # minimum :: Ord a => Node a -> a Source # | |
Foldable Seq | |
Defined in Data.Sequence.Internal fold :: Monoid m => Seq m -> m Source # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Seq a -> m Source # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Seq a -> m Source # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Seq a -> b Source # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Seq a -> b Source # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Seq a -> b Source # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Seq a -> b Source # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Seq a -> a Source # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Seq a -> a Source # toList :: Seq a -> [a] Source # null :: Seq a -> Bool Source # length :: Seq a -> Int Source # elem :: Eq a => a -> Seq a -> Bool Source # maximum :: Ord a => Seq a -> a Source # minimum :: Ord a => Seq a -> a Source # | |
Foldable ViewL | |
Defined in Data.Sequence.Internal fold :: Monoid m => ViewL m -> m Source # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> ViewL a -> m Source # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> ViewL a -> m Source # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> ViewL a -> b Source # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> ViewL a -> b Source # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> ViewL a -> b Source # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> ViewL a -> b Source # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> ViewL a -> a Source # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> ViewL a -> a Source # toList :: ViewL a -> [a] Source # null :: ViewL a -> Bool Source # length :: ViewL a -> Int Source # elem :: Eq a => a -> ViewL a -> Bool Source # maximum :: Ord a => ViewL a -> a Source # minimum :: Ord a => ViewL a -> a Source # | |
Foldable ViewR | |
Defined in Data.Sequence.Internal fold :: Monoid m => ViewR m -> m Source # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> ViewR a -> m Source # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> ViewR a -> m Source # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> ViewR a -> b Source # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> ViewR a -> b Source # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> ViewR a -> b Source # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> ViewR a -> b Source # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> ViewR a -> a Source # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> ViewR a -> a Source # toList :: ViewR a -> [a] Source # null :: ViewR a -> Bool Source # length :: ViewR a -> Int Source # elem :: Eq a => a -> ViewR a -> Bool Source # maximum :: Ord a => ViewR a -> a Source # minimum :: Ord a => ViewR a -> a Source # | |
Foldable Set | |
Defined in Data.Set.Internal fold :: Monoid m => Set m -> m Source # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Set a -> m Source # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Set a -> m Source # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Set a -> b Source # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Set a -> b Source # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Set a -> b Source # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Set a -> b Source # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Set a -> a Source # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Set a -> a Source # toList :: Set a -> [a] Source # null :: Set a -> Bool Source # length :: Set a -> Int Source # elem :: Eq a => a -> Set a -> Bool Source # maximum :: Ord a => Set a -> a Source # minimum :: Ord a => Set a -> a Source # | |
Foldable Tree | |
Defined in Data.Tree fold :: Monoid m => Tree m -> m Source # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Tree a -> m Source # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Tree a -> m Source # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Tree a -> b Source # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Tree a -> b Source # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Tree a -> b Source # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Tree a -> b Source # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Tree a -> a Source # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Tree a -> a Source # toList :: Tree a -> [a] Source # null :: Tree a -> Bool Source # length :: Tree a -> Int Source # elem :: Eq a => a -> Tree a -> Bool Source # maximum :: Ord a => Tree a -> a Source # minimum :: Ord a => Tree a -> a Source # | |
Foldable TyVarBndr | |
Defined in Language.Haskell.TH.Syntax fold :: Monoid m => TyVarBndr m -> m Source # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> TyVarBndr a -> m Source # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> TyVarBndr a -> m Source # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> TyVarBndr a -> b Source # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> TyVarBndr a -> b Source # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> TyVarBndr a -> b Source # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> TyVarBndr a -> b Source # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> TyVarBndr a -> a Source # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> TyVarBndr a -> a Source # toList :: TyVarBndr a -> [a] Source # null :: TyVarBndr a -> Bool Source # length :: TyVarBndr a -> Int Source # elem :: Eq a => a -> TyVarBndr a -> Bool Source # maximum :: Ord a => TyVarBndr a -> a Source # minimum :: Ord a => TyVarBndr a -> a Source # | |
Foldable Maybe | Since: base-2.1 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => Maybe m -> m Source # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Maybe a -> m Source # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Maybe a -> m Source # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Maybe a -> b Source # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Maybe a -> b Source # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Maybe a -> b Source # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Maybe a -> b Source # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Maybe a -> a Source # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Maybe a -> a Source # toList :: Maybe a -> [a] Source # null :: Maybe a -> Bool Source # length :: Maybe a -> Int Source # elem :: Eq a => a -> Maybe a -> Bool Source # maximum :: Ord a => Maybe a -> a Source # minimum :: Ord a => Maybe a -> a Source # | |
Foldable Solo | Since: base-4.15 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => Solo m -> m Source # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Solo a -> m Source # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Solo a -> m Source # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Solo a -> b Source # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Solo a -> b Source # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Solo a -> b Source # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Solo a -> b Source # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Solo a -> a Source # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Solo a -> a Source # toList :: Solo a -> [a] Source # null :: Solo a -> Bool Source # length :: Solo a -> Int Source # elem :: Eq a => a -> Solo a -> Bool Source # maximum :: Ord a => Solo a -> a Source # minimum :: Ord a => Solo a -> a Source # | |
Foldable [] | Since: base-2.1 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => [m] -> m Source # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> [a] -> m Source # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> [a] -> m Source # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> [a] -> b Source # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> [a] -> b Source # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> [a] -> b Source # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> [a] -> b Source # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> [a] -> a Source # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> [a] -> a Source # elem :: Eq a => a -> [a] -> Bool Source # maximum :: Ord a => [a] -> a Source # minimum :: Ord a => [a] -> a Source # | |
Foldable (Either a) | Since: base-4.7.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => Either a m -> m Source # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a0 -> m) -> Either a a0 -> m Source # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a0 -> m) -> Either a a0 -> m Source # foldr :: (a0 -> b -> b) -> b -> Either a a0 -> b Source # foldr' :: (a0 -> b -> b) -> b -> Either a a0 -> b Source # foldl :: (b -> a0 -> b) -> b -> Either a a0 -> b Source # foldl' :: (b -> a0 -> b) -> b -> Either a a0 -> b Source # foldr1 :: (a0 -> a0 -> a0) -> Either a a0 -> a0 Source # foldl1 :: (a0 -> a0 -> a0) -> Either a a0 -> a0 Source # toList :: Either a a0 -> [a0] Source # null :: Either a a0 -> Bool Source # length :: Either a a0 -> Int Source # elem :: Eq a0 => a0 -> Either a a0 -> Bool Source # maximum :: Ord a0 => Either a a0 -> a0 Source # minimum :: Ord a0 => Either a a0 -> a0 Source # | |
Foldable (Proxy :: Type -> Type) | Since: base-4.7.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => Proxy m -> m Source # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Proxy a -> m Source # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Proxy a -> m Source # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Proxy a -> b Source # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Proxy a -> b Source # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Proxy a -> b Source # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Proxy a -> b Source # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Proxy a -> a Source # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Proxy a -> a Source # toList :: Proxy a -> [a] Source # null :: Proxy a -> Bool Source # length :: Proxy a -> Int Source # elem :: Eq a => a -> Proxy a -> Bool Source # maximum :: Ord a => Proxy a -> a Source # minimum :: Ord a => Proxy a -> a Source # | |
Foldable (Arg a) | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Semigroup fold :: Monoid m => Arg a m -> m Source # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a0 -> m) -> Arg a a0 -> m Source # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a0 -> m) -> Arg a a0 -> m Source # foldr :: (a0 -> b -> b) -> b -> Arg a a0 -> b Source # foldr' :: (a0 -> b -> b) -> b -> Arg a a0 -> b Source # foldl :: (b -> a0 -> b) -> b -> Arg a a0 -> b Source # foldl' :: (b -> a0 -> b) -> b -> Arg a a0 -> b Source # foldr1 :: (a0 -> a0 -> a0) -> Arg a a0 -> a0 Source # foldl1 :: (a0 -> a0 -> a0) -> Arg a a0 -> a0 Source # toList :: Arg a a0 -> [a0] Source # null :: Arg a a0 -> Bool Source # length :: Arg a a0 -> Int Source # elem :: Eq a0 => a0 -> Arg a a0 -> Bool Source # maximum :: Ord a0 => Arg a a0 -> a0 Source # minimum :: Ord a0 => Arg a a0 -> a0 Source # | |
Foldable (Array i) | Since: base-4.8.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => Array i m -> m Source # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Array i a -> m Source # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Array i a -> m Source # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Array i a -> b Source # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Array i a -> b Source # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Array i a -> b Source # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Array i a -> b Source # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Array i a -> a Source # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Array i a -> a Source # toList :: Array i a -> [a] Source # null :: Array i a -> Bool Source # length :: Array i a -> Int Source # elem :: Eq a => a -> Array i a -> Bool Source # maximum :: Ord a => Array i a -> a Source # minimum :: Ord a => Array i a -> a Source # | |
Foldable (U1 :: Type -> Type) | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => U1 m -> m Source # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> U1 a -> m Source # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> U1 a -> m Source # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> U1 a -> b Source # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> U1 a -> b Source # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> U1 a -> b Source # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> U1 a -> b Source # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> U1 a -> a Source # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> U1 a -> a Source # toList :: U1 a -> [a] Source # length :: U1 a -> Int Source # elem :: Eq a => a -> U1 a -> Bool Source # maximum :: Ord a => U1 a -> a Source # minimum :: Ord a => U1 a -> a Source # | |
Foldable (UAddr :: Type -> Type) | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => UAddr m -> m Source # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> UAddr a -> m Source # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> UAddr a -> m Source # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> UAddr a -> b Source # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> UAddr a -> b Source # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> UAddr a -> b Source # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> UAddr a -> b Source # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> UAddr a -> a Source # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> UAddr a -> a Source # toList :: UAddr a -> [a] Source # null :: UAddr a -> Bool Source # length :: UAddr a -> Int Source # elem :: Eq a => a -> UAddr a -> Bool Source # maximum :: Ord a => UAddr a -> a Source # minimum :: Ord a => UAddr a -> a Source # | |
Foldable (UChar :: Type -> Type) | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => UChar m -> m Source # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> UChar a -> m Source # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> UChar a -> m Source # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> UChar a -> b Source # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> UChar a -> b Source # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> UChar a -> b Source # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> UChar a -> b Source # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> UChar a -> a Source # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> UChar a -> a Source # toList :: UChar a -> [a] Source # null :: UChar a -> Bool Source # length :: UChar a -> Int Source # elem :: Eq a => a -> UChar a -> Bool Source # maximum :: Ord a => UChar a -> a Source # minimum :: Ord a => UChar a -> a Source # | |
Foldable (UDouble :: Type -> Type) | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => UDouble m -> m Source # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> UDouble a -> m Source # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> UDouble a -> m Source # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> UDouble a -> b Source # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> UDouble a -> b Source # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> UDouble a -> b Source # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> UDouble a -> b Source # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> UDouble a -> a Source # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> UDouble a -> a Source # toList :: UDouble a -> [a] Source # null :: UDouble a -> Bool Source # length :: UDouble a -> Int Source # elem :: Eq a => a -> UDouble a -> Bool Source # maximum :: Ord a => UDouble a -> a Source # minimum :: Ord a => UDouble a -> a Source # | |
Foldable (UFloat :: Type -> Type) | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => UFloat m -> m Source # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> UFloat a -> m Source # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> UFloat a -> m Source # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> UFloat a -> b Source # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> UFloat a -> b Source # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> UFloat a -> b Source # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> UFloat a -> b Source # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> UFloat a -> a Source # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> UFloat a -> a Source # toList :: UFloat a -> [a] Source # null :: UFloat a -> Bool Source # length :: UFloat a -> Int Source # elem :: Eq a => a -> UFloat a -> Bool Source # maximum :: Ord a => UFloat a -> a Source # minimum :: Ord a => UFloat a -> a Source # | |
Foldable (UInt :: Type -> Type) | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => UInt m -> m Source # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> UInt a -> m Source # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> UInt a -> m Source # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> UInt a -> b Source # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> UInt a -> b Source # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> UInt a -> b Source # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> UInt a -> b Source # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> UInt a -> a Source # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> UInt a -> a Source # toList :: UInt a -> [a] Source # null :: UInt a -> Bool Source # length :: UInt a -> Int Source # elem :: Eq a => a -> UInt a -> Bool Source # maximum :: Ord a => UInt a -> a Source # minimum :: Ord a => UInt a -> a Source # | |
Foldable (UWord :: Type -> Type) | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => UWord m -> m Source # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> UWord a -> m Source # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> UWord a -> m Source # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> UWord a -> b Source # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> UWord a -> b Source # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> UWord a -> b Source # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> UWord a -> b Source # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> UWord a -> a Source # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> UWord a -> a Source # toList :: UWord a -> [a] Source # null :: UWord a -> Bool Source # length :: UWord a -> Int Source # elem :: Eq a => a -> UWord a -> Bool Source # maximum :: Ord a => UWord a -> a Source # minimum :: Ord a => UWord a -> a Source # | |
Foldable (V1 :: Type -> Type) | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => V1 m -> m Source # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> V1 a -> m Source # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> V1 a -> m Source # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> V1 a -> b Source # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> V1 a -> b Source # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> V1 a -> b Source # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> V1 a -> b Source # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> V1 a -> a Source # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> V1 a -> a Source # toList :: V1 a -> [a] Source # length :: V1 a -> Int Source # elem :: Eq a => a -> V1 a -> Bool Source # maximum :: Ord a => V1 a -> a Source # minimum :: Ord a => V1 a -> a Source # | |
Foldable (Map k) | |
Defined in Data.Map.Internal fold :: Monoid m => Map k m -> m Source # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Map k a -> m Source # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Map k a -> m Source # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Map k a -> b Source # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Map k a -> b Source # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Map k a -> b Source # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Map k a -> b Source # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Map k a -> a Source # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Map k a -> a Source # toList :: Map k a -> [a] Source # null :: Map k a -> Bool Source # length :: Map k a -> Int Source # elem :: Eq a => a -> Map k a -> Bool Source # maximum :: Ord a => Map k a -> a Source # minimum :: Ord a => Map k a -> a Source # | |
Foldable f => Foldable (Lift f) | |
Defined in Control.Applicative.Lift fold :: Monoid m => Lift f m -> m Source # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Lift f a -> m Source # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Lift f a -> m Source # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Lift f a -> b Source # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Lift f a -> b Source # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Lift f a -> b Source # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Lift f a -> b Source # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Lift f a -> a Source # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Lift f a -> a Source # toList :: Lift f a -> [a] Source # null :: Lift f a -> Bool Source # length :: Lift f a -> Int Source # elem :: Eq a => a -> Lift f a -> Bool Source # maximum :: Ord a => Lift f a -> a Source # minimum :: Ord a => Lift f a -> a Source # | |
Foldable f => Foldable (MaybeT f) | |
Defined in Control.Monad.Trans.Maybe fold :: Monoid m => MaybeT f m -> m Source # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> MaybeT f a -> m Source # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> MaybeT f a -> m Source # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> MaybeT f a -> b Source # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> MaybeT f a -> b Source # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> MaybeT f a -> b Source # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> MaybeT f a -> b Source # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> MaybeT f a -> a Source # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> MaybeT f a -> a Source # toList :: MaybeT f a -> [a] Source # null :: MaybeT f a -> Bool Source # length :: MaybeT f a -> Int Source # elem :: Eq a => a -> MaybeT f a -> Bool Source # maximum :: Ord a => MaybeT f a -> a Source # minimum :: Ord a => MaybeT f a -> a Source # | |
Foldable ((,) a) | Since: base-4.7.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => (a, m) -> m Source # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a0 -> m) -> (a, a0) -> m Source # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a0 -> m) -> (a, a0) -> m Source # foldr :: (a0 -> b -> b) -> b -> (a, a0) -> b Source # foldr' :: (a0 -> b -> b) -> b -> (a, a0) -> b Source # foldl :: (b -> a0 -> b) -> b -> (a, a0) -> b Source # foldl' :: (b -> a0 -> b) -> b -> (a, a0) -> b Source # foldr1 :: (a0 -> a0 -> a0) -> (a, a0) -> a0 Source # foldl1 :: (a0 -> a0 -> a0) -> (a, a0) -> a0 Source # toList :: (a, a0) -> [a0] Source # null :: (a, a0) -> Bool Source # length :: (a, a0) -> Int Source # elem :: Eq a0 => a0 -> (a, a0) -> Bool Source # maximum :: Ord a0 => (a, a0) -> a0 Source # minimum :: Ord a0 => (a, a0) -> a0 Source # | |
Foldable (Const m :: Type -> Type) | Since: base-4.7.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Functor.Const fold :: Monoid m0 => Const m m0 -> m0 Source # foldMap :: Monoid m0 => (a -> m0) -> Const m a -> m0 Source # foldMap' :: Monoid m0 => (a -> m0) -> Const m a -> m0 Source # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Const m a -> b Source # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Const m a -> b Source # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Const m a -> b Source # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Const m a -> b Source # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Const m a -> a Source # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Const m a -> a Source # toList :: Const m a -> [a] Source # null :: Const m a -> Bool Source # length :: Const m a -> Int Source # elem :: Eq a => a -> Const m a -> Bool Source # maximum :: Ord a => Const m a -> a Source # minimum :: Ord a => Const m a -> a Source # | |
Foldable f => Foldable (Ap f) | Since: base-4.12.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => Ap f m -> m Source # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Ap f a -> m Source # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Ap f a -> m Source # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Ap f a -> b Source # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Ap f a -> b Source # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Ap f a -> b Source # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Ap f a -> b Source # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Ap f a -> a Source # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Ap f a -> a Source # toList :: Ap f a -> [a] Source # null :: Ap f a -> Bool Source # length :: Ap f a -> Int Source # elem :: Eq a => a -> Ap f a -> Bool Source # maximum :: Ord a => Ap f a -> a Source # minimum :: Ord a => Ap f a -> a Source # | |
Foldable f => Foldable (Alt f) | Since: base-4.12.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => Alt f m -> m Source # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Alt f a -> m Source # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Alt f a -> m Source # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Alt f a -> b Source # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Alt f a -> b Source # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Alt f a -> b Source # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Alt f a -> b Source # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Alt f a -> a Source # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Alt f a -> a Source # toList :: Alt f a -> [a] Source # null :: Alt f a -> Bool Source # length :: Alt f a -> Int Source # elem :: Eq a => a -> Alt f a -> Bool Source # maximum :: Ord a => Alt f a -> a Source # minimum :: Ord a => Alt f a -> a Source # | |
Foldable f => Foldable (Rec1 f) | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => Rec1 f m -> m Source # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Rec1 f a -> m Source # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Rec1 f a -> m Source # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Rec1 f a -> b Source # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Rec1 f a -> b Source # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Rec1 f a -> b Source # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Rec1 f a -> b Source # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Rec1 f a -> a Source # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Rec1 f a -> a Source # toList :: Rec1 f a -> [a] Source # null :: Rec1 f a -> Bool Source # length :: Rec1 f a -> Int Source # elem :: Eq a => a -> Rec1 f a -> Bool Source # maximum :: Ord a => Rec1 f a -> a Source # minimum :: Ord a => Rec1 f a -> a Source # | |
Foldable f => Foldable (Backwards f) | Derived instance. |
Defined in Control.Applicative.Backwards fold :: Monoid m => Backwards f m -> m Source # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Backwards f a -> m Source # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Backwards f a -> m Source # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Backwards f a -> b Source # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Backwards f a -> b Source # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Backwards f a -> b Source # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Backwards f a -> b Source # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Backwards f a -> a Source # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Backwards f a -> a Source # toList :: Backwards f a -> [a] Source # null :: Backwards f a -> Bool Source # length :: Backwards f a -> Int Source # elem :: Eq a => a -> Backwards f a -> Bool Source # maximum :: Ord a => Backwards f a -> a Source # minimum :: Ord a => Backwards f a -> a Source # | |
Foldable f => Foldable (ExceptT e f) | |
Defined in Control.Monad.Trans.Except fold :: Monoid m => ExceptT e f m -> m Source # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> ExceptT e f a -> m Source # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> ExceptT e f a -> m Source # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> ExceptT e f a -> b Source # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> ExceptT e f a -> b Source # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> ExceptT e f a -> b Source # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> ExceptT e f a -> b Source # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> ExceptT e f a -> a Source # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> ExceptT e f a -> a Source # toList :: ExceptT e f a -> [a] Source # null :: ExceptT e f a -> Bool Source # length :: ExceptT e f a -> Int Source # elem :: Eq a => a -> ExceptT e f a -> Bool Source # maximum :: Ord a => ExceptT e f a -> a Source # minimum :: Ord a => ExceptT e f a -> a Source # | |
Foldable f => Foldable (IdentityT f) | |
Defined in Control.Monad.Trans.Identity fold :: Monoid m => IdentityT f m -> m Source # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> IdentityT f a -> m Source # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> IdentityT f a -> m Source # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> IdentityT f a -> b Source # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> IdentityT f a -> b Source # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> IdentityT f a -> b Source # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> IdentityT f a -> b Source # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> IdentityT f a -> a Source # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> IdentityT f a -> a Source # toList :: IdentityT f a -> [a] Source # null :: IdentityT f a -> Bool Source # length :: IdentityT f a -> Int Source # elem :: Eq a => a -> IdentityT f a -> Bool Source # maximum :: Ord a => IdentityT f a -> a Source # minimum :: Ord a => IdentityT f a -> a Source # | |
Foldable f => Foldable (WriterT w f) | |
Defined in Control.Monad.Trans.Writer.Lazy fold :: Monoid m => WriterT w f m -> m Source # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> WriterT w f a -> m Source # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> WriterT w f a -> m Source # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> WriterT w f a -> b Source # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> WriterT w f a -> b Source # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> WriterT w f a -> b Source # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> WriterT w f a -> b Source # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> WriterT w f a -> a Source # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> WriterT w f a -> a Source # toList :: WriterT w f a -> [a] Source # null :: WriterT w f a -> Bool Source # length :: WriterT w f a -> Int Source # elem :: Eq a => a -> WriterT w f a -> Bool Source # maximum :: Ord a => WriterT w f a -> a Source # minimum :: Ord a => WriterT w f a -> a Source # | |
Foldable f => Foldable (WriterT w f) | |
Defined in Control.Monad.Trans.Writer.Strict fold :: Monoid m => WriterT w f m -> m Source # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> WriterT w f a -> m Source # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> WriterT w f a -> m Source # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> WriterT w f a -> b Source # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> WriterT w f a -> b Source # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> WriterT w f a -> b Source # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> WriterT w f a -> b Source # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> WriterT w f a -> a Source # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> WriterT w f a -> a Source # toList :: WriterT w f a -> [a] Source # null :: WriterT w f a -> Bool Source # length :: WriterT w f a -> Int Source # elem :: Eq a => a -> WriterT w f a -> Bool Source # maximum :: Ord a => WriterT w f a -> a Source # minimum :: Ord a => WriterT w f a -> a Source # | |
Foldable (Constant a :: Type -> Type) | |
Defined in Data.Functor.Constant fold :: Monoid m => Constant a m -> m Source # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a0 -> m) -> Constant a a0 -> m Source # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a0 -> m) -> Constant a a0 -> m Source # foldr :: (a0 -> b -> b) -> b -> Constant a a0 -> b Source # foldr' :: (a0 -> b -> b) -> b -> Constant a a0 -> b Source # foldl :: (b -> a0 -> b) -> b -> Constant a a0 -> b Source # foldl' :: (b -> a0 -> b) -> b -> Constant a a0 -> b Source # foldr1 :: (a0 -> a0 -> a0) -> Constant a a0 -> a0 Source # foldl1 :: (a0 -> a0 -> a0) -> Constant a a0 -> a0 Source # toList :: Constant a a0 -> [a0] Source # null :: Constant a a0 -> Bool Source # length :: Constant a a0 -> Int Source # elem :: Eq a0 => a0 -> Constant a a0 -> Bool Source # maximum :: Ord a0 => Constant a a0 -> a0 Source # minimum :: Ord a0 => Constant a a0 -> a0 Source # | |
Foldable f => Foldable (Reverse f) | Fold from right to left. |
Defined in Data.Functor.Reverse fold :: Monoid m => Reverse f m -> m Source # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Reverse f a -> m Source # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Reverse f a -> m Source # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Reverse f a -> b Source # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Reverse f a -> b Source # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Reverse f a -> b Source # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Reverse f a -> b Source # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Reverse f a -> a Source # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Reverse f a -> a Source # toList :: Reverse f a -> [a] Source # null :: Reverse f a -> Bool Source # length :: Reverse f a -> Int Source # elem :: Eq a => a -> Reverse f a -> Bool Source # maximum :: Ord a => Reverse f a -> a Source # minimum :: Ord a => Reverse f a -> a Source # | |
(Foldable f, Foldable g) => Foldable (Product f g) | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Functor.Product fold :: Monoid m => Product f g m -> m Source # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Product f g a -> m Source # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Product f g a -> m Source # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Product f g a -> b Source # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Product f g a -> b Source # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Product f g a -> b Source # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Product f g a -> b Source # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Product f g a -> a Source # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Product f g a -> a Source # toList :: Product f g a -> [a] Source # null :: Product f g a -> Bool Source # length :: Product f g a -> Int Source # elem :: Eq a => a -> Product f g a -> Bool Source # maximum :: Ord a => Product f g a -> a Source # minimum :: Ord a => Product f g a -> a Source # | |
(Foldable f, Foldable g) => Foldable (Sum f g) | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Functor.Sum fold :: Monoid m => Sum f g m -> m Source # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Sum f g a -> m Source # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Sum f g a -> m Source # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Sum f g a -> b Source # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Sum f g a -> b Source # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Sum f g a -> b Source # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Sum f g a -> b Source # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Sum f g a -> a Source # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Sum f g a -> a Source # toList :: Sum f g a -> [a] Source # null :: Sum f g a -> Bool Source # length :: Sum f g a -> Int Source # elem :: Eq a => a -> Sum f g a -> Bool Source # maximum :: Ord a => Sum f g a -> a Source # minimum :: Ord a => Sum f g a -> a Source # | |
(Foldable f, Foldable g) => Foldable (f :*: g) | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => (f :*: g) m -> m Source # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> (f :*: g) a -> m Source # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> (f :*: g) a -> m Source # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> (f :*: g) a -> b Source # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> (f :*: g) a -> b Source # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> (f :*: g) a -> b Source # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> (f :*: g) a -> b Source # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> (f :*: g) a -> a Source # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> (f :*: g) a -> a Source # toList :: (f :*: g) a -> [a] Source # null :: (f :*: g) a -> Bool Source # length :: (f :*: g) a -> Int Source # elem :: Eq a => a -> (f :*: g) a -> Bool Source # maximum :: Ord a => (f :*: g) a -> a Source # minimum :: Ord a => (f :*: g) a -> a Source # | |
(Foldable f, Foldable g) => Foldable (f :+: g) | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => (f :+: g) m -> m Source # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> (f :+: g) a -> m Source # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> (f :+: g) a -> m Source # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> (f :+: g) a -> b Source # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> (f :+: g) a -> b Source # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> (f :+: g) a -> b Source # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> (f :+: g) a -> b Source # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> (f :+: g) a -> a Source # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> (f :+: g) a -> a Source # toList :: (f :+: g) a -> [a] Source # null :: (f :+: g) a -> Bool Source # length :: (f :+: g) a -> Int Source # elem :: Eq a => a -> (f :+: g) a -> Bool Source # maximum :: Ord a => (f :+: g) a -> a Source # minimum :: Ord a => (f :+: g) a -> a Source # | |
Foldable (K1 i c :: Type -> Type) | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => K1 i c m -> m Source # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> K1 i c a -> m Source # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> K1 i c a -> m Source # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> K1 i c a -> b Source # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> K1 i c a -> b Source # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> K1 i c a -> b Source # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> K1 i c a -> b Source # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> K1 i c a -> a Source # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> K1 i c a -> a Source # toList :: K1 i c a -> [a] Source # null :: K1 i c a -> Bool Source # length :: K1 i c a -> Int Source # elem :: Eq a => a -> K1 i c a -> Bool Source # maximum :: Ord a => K1 i c a -> a Source # minimum :: Ord a => K1 i c a -> a Source # | |
(Foldable f, Foldable g) => Foldable (Compose f g) | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Functor.Compose fold :: Monoid m => Compose f g m -> m Source # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Compose f g a -> m Source # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Compose f g a -> m Source # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Compose f g a -> b Source # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Compose f g a -> b Source # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Compose f g a -> b Source # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Compose f g a -> b Source # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Compose f g a -> a Source # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Compose f g a -> a Source # toList :: Compose f g a -> [a] Source # null :: Compose f g a -> Bool Source # length :: Compose f g a -> Int Source # elem :: Eq a => a -> Compose f g a -> Bool Source # maximum :: Ord a => Compose f g a -> a Source # minimum :: Ord a => Compose f g a -> a Source # | |
(Foldable f, Foldable g) => Foldable (f :.: g) | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => (f :.: g) m -> m Source # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> (f :.: g) a -> m Source # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> (f :.: g) a -> m Source # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> (f :.: g) a -> b Source # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> (f :.: g) a -> b Source # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> (f :.: g) a -> b Source # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> (f :.: g) a -> b Source # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> (f :.: g) a -> a Source # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> (f :.: g) a -> a Source # toList :: (f :.: g) a -> [a] Source # null :: (f :.: g) a -> Bool Source # length :: (f :.: g) a -> Int Source # elem :: Eq a => a -> (f :.: g) a -> Bool Source # maximum :: Ord a => (f :.: g) a -> a Source # minimum :: Ord a => (f :.: g) a -> a Source # | |
Foldable f => Foldable (M1 i c f) | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => M1 i c f m -> m Source # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> M1 i c f a -> m Source # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> M1 i c f a -> m Source # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> M1 i c f a -> b Source # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> M1 i c f a -> b Source # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> M1 i c f a -> b Source # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> M1 i c f a -> b Source # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> M1 i c f a -> a Source # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> M1 i c f a -> a Source # toList :: M1 i c f a -> [a] Source # null :: M1 i c f a -> Bool Source # length :: M1 i c f a -> Int Source # elem :: Eq a => a -> M1 i c f a -> Bool Source # maximum :: Ord a => M1 i c f a -> a Source # minimum :: Ord a => M1 i c f a -> a Source # |
The Maybe
type encapsulates an optional value. A value of type
either contains a value of type Maybe
aa
(represented as
),
or it is empty (represented as Just
aNothing
). Using Maybe
is a good way to
deal with errors or exceptional cases without resorting to drastic
measures such as error
.
The Maybe
type is also a monad. It is a simple kind of error
monad, where all errors are represented by Nothing
. A richer
error monad can be built using the Either
type.
Instances
MonadFail Maybe | Since: base-4.9.0.0 | ||||
MonadFix Maybe | Since: base-2.1 | ||||
MonadZip Maybe | Since: base-4.8.0.0 | ||||
Foldable Maybe | Since: base-2.1 | ||||
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => Maybe m -> m Source # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Maybe a -> m Source # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Maybe a -> m Source # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Maybe a -> b Source # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Maybe a -> b Source # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Maybe a -> b Source # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Maybe a -> b Source # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Maybe a -> a Source # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Maybe a -> a Source # toList :: Maybe a -> [a] Source # null :: Maybe a -> Bool Source # length :: Maybe a -> Int Source # elem :: Eq a => a -> Maybe a -> Bool Source # maximum :: Ord a => Maybe a -> a Source # minimum :: Ord a => Maybe a -> a Source # | |||||
Eq1 Maybe | Since: base-4.9.0.0 | ||||
Ord1 Maybe | Since: base-4.9.0.0 | ||||
Defined in Data.Functor.Classes | |||||
Read1 Maybe | Since: base-4.9.0.0 | ||||
Defined in Data.Functor.Classes liftReadsPrec :: (Int -> ReadS a) -> ReadS [a] -> Int -> ReadS (Maybe a) Source # liftReadList :: (Int -> ReadS a) -> ReadS [a] -> ReadS [Maybe a] Source # liftReadPrec :: ReadPrec a -> ReadPrec [a] -> ReadPrec (Maybe a) Source # liftReadListPrec :: ReadPrec a -> ReadPrec [a] -> ReadPrec [Maybe a] Source # | |||||
Show1 Maybe | Since: base-4.9.0.0 | ||||
Traversable Maybe | Since: base-2.1 | ||||
Alternative Maybe | Picks the leftmost Since: base-2.1 | ||||
Applicative Maybe | Since: base-2.1 | ||||
Functor Maybe | Since: base-2.1 | ||||
Monad Maybe | Since: base-2.1 | ||||
MonadPlus Maybe | Picks the leftmost Since: base-2.1 | ||||
NFData1 Maybe | |||||
Defined in Control.DeepSeq | |||||
Generic1 Maybe | |||||
Defined in GHC.Generics | |||||
Lift a => Lift (Maybe a :: Type) | |||||
Data a => Data (Maybe a) | Since: base-4.0.0.0 | ||||
Defined in Data.Data gfoldl :: (forall d b. Data d => c (d -> b) -> d -> c b) -> (forall g. g -> c g) -> Maybe a -> c (Maybe a) Source # gunfold :: (forall b r. Data b => c (b -> r) -> c r) -> (forall r. r -> c r) -> Constr -> c (Maybe a) Source # toConstr :: Maybe a -> Constr Source # dataTypeOf :: Maybe a -> DataType Source # dataCast1 :: Typeable t => (forall d. Data d => c (t d)) -> Maybe (c (Maybe a)) Source # dataCast2 :: Typeable t => (forall d e. (Data d, Data e) => c (t d e)) -> Maybe (c (Maybe a)) Source # gmapT :: (forall b. Data b => b -> b) -> Maybe a -> Maybe a Source # gmapQl :: (r -> r' -> r) -> r -> (forall d. Data d => d -> r') -> Maybe a -> r Source # gmapQr :: forall r r'. (r' -> r -> r) -> r -> (forall d. Data d => d -> r') -> Maybe a -> r Source # gmapQ :: (forall d. Data d => d -> u) -> Maybe a -> [u] Source # gmapQi :: Int -> (forall d. Data d => d -> u) -> Maybe a -> u Source # gmapM :: Monad m => (forall d. Data d => d -> m d) -> Maybe a -> m (Maybe a) Source # gmapMp :: MonadPlus m => (forall d. Data d => d -> m d) -> Maybe a -> m (Maybe a) Source # gmapMo :: MonadPlus m => (forall d. Data d => d -> m d) -> Maybe a -> m (Maybe a) Source # | |||||
Semigroup a => Monoid (Maybe a) | Lift a semigroup into Since 4.11.0: constraint on inner Since: base-2.1 | ||||
Semigroup a => Semigroup (Maybe a) | Since: base-4.9.0.0 | ||||
Generic (Maybe a) | |||||
Defined in GHC.Generics
| |||||
SingKind a => SingKind (Maybe a) | Since: base-4.9.0.0 | ||||
Defined in GHC.Generics
| |||||
Read a => Read (Maybe a) | Since: base-2.1 | ||||
Show a => Show (Maybe a) | Since: base-2.1 | ||||
NFData a => NFData (Maybe a) | |||||
Defined in Control.DeepSeq | |||||
Eq a => Eq (Maybe a) | Since: base-2.1 | ||||
Ord a => Ord (Maybe a) | Since: base-2.1 | ||||
SingI ('Nothing :: Maybe a) | Since: base-4.9.0.0 | ||||
Defined in GHC.Generics | |||||
SingI a2 => SingI ('Just a2 :: Maybe a1) | Since: base-4.9.0.0 | ||||
Defined in GHC.Generics | |||||
type Rep1 Maybe | Since: base-4.6.0.0 | ||||
type DemoteRep (Maybe a) | |||||
Defined in GHC.Generics | |||||
type Rep (Maybe a) | Since: base-4.6.0.0 | ||||
Defined in GHC.Generics | |||||
data Sing (b :: Maybe a) | |||||
Conversion of values to readable String
s.
Derived instances of Show
have the following properties, which
are compatible with derived instances of Read
:
- The result of
show
is a syntactically correct Haskell expression containing only constants, given the fixity declarations in force at the point where the type is declared. It contains only the constructor names defined in the data type, parentheses, and spaces. When labelled constructor fields are used, braces, commas, field names, and equal signs are also used. - If the constructor is defined to be an infix operator, then
showsPrec
will produce infix applications of the constructor. - the representation will be enclosed in parentheses if the
precedence of the top-level constructor in
x
is less thand
(associativity is ignored). Thus, ifd
is0
then the result is never surrounded in parentheses; ifd
is11
it is always surrounded in parentheses, unless it is an atomic expression. - If the constructor is defined using record syntax, then
show
will produce the record-syntax form, with the fields given in the same order as the original declaration.
For example, given the declarations
infixr 5 :^: data Tree a = Leaf a | Tree a :^: Tree a
the derived instance of Show
is equivalent to
instance (Show a) => Show (Tree a) where showsPrec d (Leaf m) = showParen (d > app_prec) $ showString "Leaf " . showsPrec (app_prec+1) m where app_prec = 10 showsPrec d (u :^: v) = showParen (d > up_prec) $ showsPrec (up_prec+1) u . showString " :^: " . showsPrec (up_prec+1) v where up_prec = 5
Note that right-associativity of :^:
is ignored. For example,
produces the stringshow
(Leaf 1 :^: Leaf 2 :^: Leaf 3)"Leaf 1 :^: (Leaf 2 :^: Leaf 3)"
.
:: Int | the operator precedence of the enclosing
context (a number from |
-> a | the value to be converted to a |
-> ShowS |
Convert a value to a readable String
.
showsPrec
should satisfy the law
showsPrec d x r ++ s == showsPrec d x (r ++ s)
Derived instances of Read
and Show
satisfy the following:
That is, readsPrec
parses the string produced by
showsPrec
, and delivers the value that showsPrec
started with.