6.2.7. Monad comprehensions


Enable list comprehension syntax for arbitrary monads.

Monad comprehensions generalise the list comprehension notation, including parallel comprehensions (Parallel List Comprehensions) and transform comprehensions (Generalised (SQL-like) List Comprehensions) to work for any monad.

Monad comprehensions support:

  • Bindings:

    [ x + y | x <- Just 1, y <- Just 2 ]

    Bindings are translated with the (>>=) and return functions to the usual do-notation:

    do x <- Just 1
       y <- Just 2
       return (x+y)
  • Guards:

    [ x | x <- [1..10], x <= 5 ]

    Guards are translated with the guard function, which requires a MonadPlus instance:

    do x <- [1..10]
       guard (x <= 5)
       return x
  • Transform statements (as with TransformListComp):

    [ x+y | x <- [1..10], y <- [1..x], then take 2 ]

    This translates to:

    do (x,y) <- take 2 (do x <- [1..10]
                           y <- [1..x]
                           return (x,y))
       return (x+y)
  • Group statements (as with TransformListComp):

    [ x | x <- [1,1,2,2,3], then group by x using GHC.Exts.groupWith ]
    [ x | x <- [1,1,2,2,3], then group using myGroup ]
  • Parallel statements (as with ParallelListComp):

    [ (x+y) | x <- [1..10]
            | y <- [11..20]

    Parallel statements are translated using the mzip function, which requires a MonadZip instance defined in Control.Monad.Zip:

    do (x,y) <- mzip (do x <- [1..10]
                         return x)
                     (do y <- [11..20]
                         return y)
       return (x+y)

All these features are enabled by default if the MonadComprehensions extension is enabled. The types and more detailed examples on how to use comprehensions are explained in the previous chapters Generalised (SQL-like) List Comprehensions and Parallel List Comprehensions. In general you just have to replace the type [a] with the type Monad m => m a for monad comprehensions.


Even though most of these examples are using the list monad, monad comprehensions work for any monad. The base package offers all necessary instances for lists, which make MonadComprehensions backward compatible to built-in, transform and parallel list comprehensions.

More formally, the desugaring is as follows. We write D[ e | Q] to mean the desugaring of the monad comprehension [ e | Q]:

Expressions: e
Declarations: d
Lists of qualifiers: Q,R,S

-- Basic forms
D[ e | ]               = return e
D[ e | p <- e, Q ]  = e >>= \p -> D[ e | Q ]
D[ e | e, Q ]          = guard e >> \p -> D[ e | Q ]
D[ e | let d, Q ]      = let d in D[ e | Q ]

-- Parallel comprehensions (iterate for multiple parallel branches)
D[ e | (Q | R), S ]    = mzip D[ Qv | Q ] D[ Rv | R ] >>= \(Qv,Rv) -> D[ e | S ]

-- Transform comprehensions
D[ e | Q then f, R ]                  = f D[ Qv | Q ] >>= \Qv -> D[ e | R ]

D[ e | Q then f by b, R ]             = f (\Qv -> b) D[ Qv | Q ] >>= \Qv -> D[ e | R ]

D[ e | Q then group using f, R ]      = f D[ Qv | Q ] >>= \ys ->
                                        case (fmap selQv1 ys, ..., fmap selQvn ys) of
                                         Qv -> D[ e | R ]

D[ e | Q then group by b using f, R ] = f (\Qv -> b) D[ Qv | Q ] >>= \ys ->
                                        case (fmap selQv1 ys, ..., fmap selQvn ys) of
                                           Qv -> D[ e | R ]

where  Qv is the tuple of variables bound by Q (and used subsequently)
       selQvi is a selector mapping Qv to the ith component of Qv

Operator     Standard binding       Expected type
return       GHC.Base               t1 -> m t2
(>>=)        GHC.Base               m1 t1 -> (t2 -> m2 t3) -> m3 t3
(>>)         GHC.Base               m1 t1 -> m2 t2         -> m3 t3
guard        Control.Monad          t1 -> m t2
fmap         GHC.Base               forall a b. (a->b) -> n a -> n b
mzip         Control.Monad.Zip      forall a b. m a -> m b -> m (a,b)

The comprehension should typecheck when its desugaring would typecheck, except that (as discussed in Generalised (SQL-like) List Comprehensions) in the “then f” and “then group using f” clauses, when the “by b” qualifier is omitted, argument f should have a polymorphic type. In particular, “then Data.List.sort” and “then group using Data.List.group” are insufficiently polymorphic.

Monad comprehensions support rebindable syntax (Rebindable syntax and the implicit Prelude import). Without rebindable syntax, the operators from the “standard binding” module are used; with rebindable syntax, the operators are looked up in the current lexical scope. For example, parallel comprehensions will be typechecked and desugared using whatever “mzip” is in scope.

The rebindable operators must have the “Expected type” given in the table above. These types are surprisingly general. For example, you can use a bind operator with the type

(>>=) :: T x y a -> (a -> T y z b) -> T x z b

In the case of transform comprehensions, notice that the groups are parameterised over some arbitrary type n (provided it has an fmap, as well as the comprehension being over an arbitrary monad.